Note: In the catalog which follows, bold type indicates a full entry. Plain type indicates a short entry, which may occur under another manuscript.
Contents: 1eap and Family 1 * 1r * 2ap * 4e * 5 * 6 * 7e * 13 and Family 13 * 16 * 18 * 21 * 22 * 27 * 28 * 33 * 35 * 38 * 42 * 43 * 60 * 61 * 66 * 69 * 71 * 81 * 82 * 83 * 91 * 93 * 94 * 104 * 110 * 115 * 118 * 124: see under 13 and Family 13 * 131: see under 1 and Family 1 * 138 * 141 * 157 * 160 * 162 * 174 * 175 * 177 * 179 * 180 * 181 * 185 * 189 * 201 * 203 * 205 * 206 * 209: see under 1 and Family 1 * 213 * 223 * 225 * 229 * 230: see under 13 and Family 13 * 235 * 245 * 249 * 251 * 256: see under 365 and Family 2127 * 262 * 263 * 265 * 267 * 270 * 273 * 280 * 291 * 304 * 307 * 314 * 317 * 322: see under 1739 and Family 1739; also 323 * 323 * 330 and Family 330 * 346: see under 13 and Family 13 * 348 * 349 * 365 and Family 2127 * 372 * 383 * 423 * 424 * 429 * 430 * 431 * 436 * 443 * 451 * 453 and Family 453 * 472 * 473 * 476 * 477 * 482 * 485 * 495
Basel. Catalog number: University Library A. N. IV. 2.
1 contains the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Usually dated paleographically to the twelfth century. (Scrivener, however, gives the date as the tenth century while noting that Burgon dated it to the twelfth or thirteenth.) Originally contained a set of illuminations, but most of these were extracted by 1862. Scrivener notes that Hebrews is the last book in Paul, and that as bound the gospels appear at the end of the volume. The writing style is described as "elegant and minute," and "fully furnished with breathings, accents, and i adscript. The initial letters are gilt, and on the first page of each gospel the full point is a large gilt ball." Hatch reports, "Words written continuously and without separation; accents and breathings; ruling with a sharp point; letters pendents; high, middle, and low points, comma, and interrogation point...." It has the Ammonian sections and lectionary notes but not the Eusebian canons.
That 1 has a not-entirely-Byzantine text has been known at least since 1516, when Erasmus consulted it to compile the Textus Receptus. For the Gospels, Erasmus worked primarily from 1, 2e, and the vulgate, but he preferred the latter two as 1's text appeared to be aberrant.
In recent centuries, this "aberrant" text came to be recognized as valuable; 1 was, for instance, one of the very few minuscules cited by Tregelles, and Hort mentions it as having a relatively high number of pre-Syrian readings. (All of this, it should be noted, applies only in the gospels; elsewhere 1 appears to be an entirely ordinary Byzantine text.)
A crucial discovery came in 1902, when Kirsopp Lake published Codex 1 of the Gospels and its Allies. This work established the existence of the textual family known as "Family 1" or "the Lake Group" (symbolized in NA26 as f1 and in earlier editions as l; von Soden calls the group Ih). In addition to these basic four (1, 118, 131, 209), we now consider 205, 205abs, 872 (Mark only), 884 (in part), 1582, 2193, and 2542 (in part) to be members of the family. Within the type, 1 and 1582 form a close pair (they also seem to be the best representatives of the family). 205 goes with 209; in fact, Lake thought 205 a descendent of 209; although Wisse disagrees, the only differences between the two seem to be Byzantine corruptions, usually if not always in 205.
The most obvious characteristic of the Lake Group is that these manuscripts place John 7:53-8:11 after John 21:25. In addition, 1 and 1582 contain a scholion questioning the authenticity of Mark 16:9-20.
Von Soden classifies 1 as Iha (i.e. Family 1) in the Gospels and Ia3 in the Acts and Epistles. Aland and Aland list it as Category III in the Gospels and Category V elsewhere. Wisse lists it as a core member of Family 1, and "close to 1582."
This does not settle the question of what sort of text is found in Family 1. Here the name of B. H. Streeter is most important. Streeter, working largely on the basis of data supplied by Lake, proposed that Family 1, along with the Koridethi Codex (Q), Family 13, the minuscules 28, 565, 700, and the Armenian and Georgian versions, were the remnants of what he labelled the "Cæsarean Text." Streeter's theory, however, has become controversial in recent years, and cannot be discussed here. See the article on Text-Types and Textual Kinship; also the very brief mention in the entry on 13 and Family 13. It might be noted that even Streeter concedes Family 1 to be somewhat more Alexandrian than the other "Cæsarean Text" witnesses.
In fact the relationship between Family 1 and the other "Cæsarean" witnesses is somewhat uncertain. While the other members of the type often do show some sort of special relationship to each other, that of Family 1 to the others is slightly weaker. Streeter would define the "Cæsarean" witnesses in terms of non-Byzantine agreements. The following table shows the percentages of non-Byzantine agreements for certain leading "Cæsarean" witnesses (with B, D, and E thrown in for controls). The table is based on a set of 990 sample readings:
|Q||Family 1||Family 13|
The interpretation of these results is left as an exercise for the reader.
The following offers a brief summary of information about the various members of Family 1:
|1||XII||Basel||University Library A. N. IV. 2||Iha||1 core; close to 1582||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels, Acts, Epistles complete.|
|118||XIII||Oxford||Bodl. Libr. Auct. D. infr. 2. 17||Ihb||1 core||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels with lacunae; Matt. 1:1-6:2, Luke 13:35-14:20, 18:8-19:9, John 16:25-end from later hands. Many of the leaves are palimpsest, with 118 being the upper writing.|
|131||XIV?||Rome||Vatican Library Gr. 360||Ih||1||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels, Acts, Epistles complete. Dated to the eleventh century by Birch. "This copy contains many itacisms, and corrections primâ manu" (Scrivener).|
|XV||Venice||San Marco Library 420 (Fondo Ant. 5)||Ih||1; pair with 209||SQE13||Old and New Testaments complete. Thought by Lake, and earlier Rinck, to be copied from 209. This is probably not true (Burgon considers 205 and 209 to be descended from the same uncial ancestor), but the two are very close. 205 was copied for Cardinal Bessarion, probably by his librarian John Rhosen.|
|209||XIV||Venice||San Marco Library 394 (Fondo Ant. 10)||Ihb||1; pair with 205||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||New Testament complete (gospels, acts, epistles are XIV century; r is XV century). Like 205, once belonged to Cardinal Bessarion, who used it at the Council of Florence in 1429. Many marginal notes in vermillion from the first hand. Writing style resembles 1 (Scrivener).|
|1582||948||Athos||Vatopediu 949||Iha||1; close to 1||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels complete. Evidently written by the same scribe as 1739.|
|2193||X||Iha||Soden, Merk, Bover||Lost.|
Note: Von Soden also classified 22 as a member of the Lake Group; however, Wisse considers 22 to be the head of a different group. 872 is considered by von Soden to be part of Ihb, but Wisse finds it to be Kx. Two additional Family 1 witnesses found by Wisse, 884 and 2542, are only weak and partial members of the family. These four witnesses are therefore omitted.
von Soden: d254.
Kirsopp Lake, Codex 1 of the Gospels and its Allies, Texts and Studies, volume vii, Cambridge, 1902, collates 1 with 118, 131, and 209.
Aland & Aland (1 plate)
Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 and NA27 for the Gospels (usually as part of f1)
Cited, along with 205, 209, 1582, and 2542, in SQE13.
Family 1 is cited in all the UBS editions.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.
Harvard Theological Review, July 1923, offers an article by R. P. Blake and K. Lake on the Koridethi Codex and related manuscripts.
B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924) devotes considerable space to the relations between the various "Cæsarean" witnesses.
Augsburg, University Library Codex I. 1.4.1. Labelled 1 in all previous catalogs, but now renumbered 2814 in the new Aland list. Soden's An20. Contains the Apocalypse only. Twelfth century. Has the Andreas commentary. Noteworthy primarily as the single Greek manuscript used by Erasmus to prepare the Apocalypse of his 1516 New Testament. It now ends (as it did in 1516) with 22:16, dad, forcing Erasmus to compile the remaining verses by retranslating the Vulgate. Erasmus borrowed the manuscript from Reuchlin, but it was lost for many years until rediscovered in 1861 by Delitzsch. Hort said of it, "it is by no means... of the common sort. On the one hand it has many individualisms and readings with small and evidently unimportant attestation: on the other it has a large and good ancient element." Hort associates it with 38 [=2020]. Other scholars have not placed it so high, however; the text (which often cannot be distinguished from the commentary) seems to be fairly typical of the Andreas manuscripts. Hodges and Farstad, following Schmid, place it in their "Me" group, a subset of the Andreas text containing such manuscripts as 181, 598, 2026, 2028, 2029, 2031, 2033, 2038, 2044, 2052, 2054, 2056, 2057, 2059, 2060, 2065, 2068, 2069, 2081, 2083, 2186, 2286, and 2302.
Basel, University Library A. N. IV.4. Labelled 2 in all previous catalogs, but now renumbered 2815 in the new Aland list. Soden's a253. Contains the Acts and Epistles complete. Generally dated to the twelfth century, although Scrivener and Burgon list XIII/XIV. Classified as Ib1 by von Soden, but in Paul (the only section in which Von Soden cites it), this group (which includes such manuscripts as 206, 429, 522, and 1891) is mostly Byzantine. That 2 is mostly Byzantine is confirmed by the Alands, who place the manuscript in Category V. Scrivener notes that it has "short introductions to the books," but these have no more critical value than those found in any other manuscript. Thus the only real interest in 2 is historical; it is the manuscript Erasmus used as the primary basis for his 1516 edition of the Acts and Epistles. (This, at least, is reported by most experts; Gary S. Dykes, however, claims that the Textus Receptus does not contain any of 2's distinctive readings.) Scrivener quotes Hoskier to the effect that his (Erasmus's) binder cut off significant portions of the margin.
Paris, National Library Greek 84. Soden's e371. Contains the Gospels with minor mutilations (Matt. 2:9-20, John 1:49-3:11). Generally dated to the thirteenth century, although Scrivener and Burgon list the twelfth. Classified as I' by von Soden, but this group (containing among others P Q R G 047 064 074 079 090 0106 0116 0130 0131 and a number of undistinguished minuscules) is amorphous; most of its members are heavily if not purely Byzantine. That 4 is mostly Byzantine seems to be confirmed by Wisse; who classifies it as Kmix/Kx/Kx. (The Alands do not assign 4 to a Category; this often means that the manuscript is heavily but not quite purely Byzantine.) In the past, Mill considered 4 to have some relationship to the Latin versions and the Complutensian Polyglot; this may, however, be simply an indication that it agreed with the Byzantine text where the latter differs from the Textus Receptus. The manuscript was included in the editions of Stephanus as g'. It is described as "clumsily written" and has extensive lectionary apparatus.
Paris, National Library Greek 106. Soden's d453. Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles complete. Usually dated to the thirteenth century; Scrivener gives twelfth century or later. In the Gospels, Soden lists it as Ak; other members of this group include 15, 32, 53, 169, 225, 269, 292, 297, 416, 431, 448, 470, 490, 496, 499, 534, 546, 558, 573, 715, 752, 760, 860, 902, 946, 968, 976, 987, 1011, 1015, 1058, 1091, 1163, 1167, 1171, 1211, 1227, 1291, 1299, 1321, 1439, 1481, 1484, 1498, 1566, 1800, 2142, and 2176 -- an undistinguished group of manuscripts which Wisse generally classifies with Kx or its related groups (Wisse classifies 5 itself as Mix/Kmix/1519; seven other Ak manuscripts also go with 1519, but many of the other manuscripts go with 1167 or have unique texts. That 5 is largely Byzantine is confirmed by the Alands, who in the Gospels place it in Category V). Outside the gospels, 5 is much more interesting. The Alands promote it to Category III, and Von Soden places it in Ia2 (along with such manuscripts as 467 489 623 927 1827 1838 1873 2143). Some support for this is offered by Richards, as 623 is 5's closest relative in his tests of the Johannine Epistles (so close that they might almost be sisters). The kinship of 5 with 489 927 1827 2143, however, is not notable in Richards's lists; 5 agrees with all of these in the 60% range, which is fairly typical of its agreement with Byzantine manuscripts. Richards classifies 5 and 623 as members of his Group A3 (family 1739); even by his numbers, however, they are weak members, and should be discarded. Wachtel classified 5 as a distinctly non-Byzantine (40+) manuscript, but without distinguishing its kinship. Scrivener notes that it is "carefully written and full of flourishes." Colossians precedes Philippians. The manuscript was included in the editions of Stephanus as d'.
Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Nat. Gr. 112.
6 contains the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. Scrivener writes of it, "This exquisite manuscript is written in characters so small that some pages require a glass to read them."
The quality of 6 varies in the various parts of the New Testament. In the Gospels it appears to by Byzantine (belonging to family P; Wisse specifies the subgroup P6). In Acts it is also primarily Byzantine.
The situation changes in Paul and the Catholic Epistles. 6 still possesses many readings characteristic of the late phases of the Byzantine text, but it also has many distinct readings, many of which it shares with 1739. Noteworthy among these are:
It will be observed that 6 shares all of these readings with 1739. This pattern continues elsewhere; where 6 is non-Byzantine, it agrees with 1739 over 90% of the time. (The connection of 1739 and 6 has been known almost since the discovery of the former, and recently was reaffirmed by Birdsall.)
6 also has a peculiar affinity with 424**; although these manuscripts actually have fewer special agreements with each other than with 1739, this is because they are more Byzantine than 1739. 6 and 424** seem to form their own subgroup within family 1739 (note, e.g., their unique reading euwciais in Jude 12).
Von Soden lists 6 as Ik (family P) in the Gospels and as H in the Acts and Epistles. Wisse lists 6 as belonging to the P6 subgroup (a part of Pb also containing 515 and 1310). Aland and Aland list 6 as Category V in the Gospels and Acts and Category III in Paul and the Catholics.
von Soden: d356. Tischendorf: 6e; 6a; 6p. Cited in Stephanus as e'
J.N. Birdsall, A Study of MS. 1739 and its Relationship to MSS. 6, 424, 1908, and M (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1959)
Editions which cite:
Cited frequently in NA26 and NA27.
Cited in UBS4 for Paul.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.
Paris, National Library Greek 71. Soden's e287. Contains the Gospels compete. Generally dated to the twelfth century; Scrivener quotes the eleventh. Classified as Ifb by von Soden; other members of this group include 115 179 267 659 827 and parts of 185 1082 1391 1402 1606. It is associated with Family 1424 (Ifa). Wisse classified 7 as "Cluster 7." This group contains 7, 267 (Soden: Ifb), 1651 (Soden: Kx), and 1654 (Soden: Ia). Wisse describes the group as "close to Kx in Luke 1 and 10, but... quite distinct in Luke 20." The Alands do not assign 7 to a Category; this is not inconsistent with Wisse's classification of the manuscript as often but not universally close to Kx. Physically, Scrivener describes 7 as having a "very full [lectionary apparatus]" and a metrical paraphrase. It is said to be "[i]n style not unlike Cod. 4, but neater." It is Stephanus's '.
Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Natl. Gr. 50.
13 contains the Gospels with lacunae (lacking Matthew 1:1-2:20, 26:33-52, 27:26-28:9, Mark 1:20-45, John 16:19-17:11, 21:2-end). It is written on parchment, two columns per page.
Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. Scrivener says of its appearance simply "it is not correctly written."
It was W. H. Ferrar who first brought widespread attention to 13. In a posthumous work published by T. K. Abbott in 1877, he pointed out the relationship between 13, 69, 124, and 346. For this reason, the group Family 13 (f13) is often called the Ferrar Group (symbolized f; von Soden calls the group Ii).
The most obvious characteristic of the Ferrar Group is that these manuscripts place John 7:53-8:11 after Luke 21:38.
Since the time of Ferrar, many more manuscripts have been added to the Ferrar Group. The list as given in Nestle-Aland consists of 13, 69, 124, 174, 230, 346, 543, 788, 826, 828, 983, 1689, and 1709. Von Soden broke the group up into three subgroups, the a subgroup containing 983 and 1689; the b subgroup consisting of 69, (124), 174, and 788; and the c subgroup containing 13, 230, 346, 543, 826, and 828.
The Lakes offered a similar scheme (with slightly different nomenclature, essentially reversing the names of the a and c groups). In Colwell's opinion, this means that Family 13 is not a true "family"; it is a "tribe" within which the Lakes' Group a is a family. The Lakes' groups are as follows:
Wisse makes various adjustments to von Soden's list, associating 174 and 230 with the uncial L rather than with Family 13, describing 983 as "weak" in Luke 1, and listing 124 as "weak" in all chapters profiled. Wisse denies the existence of subgroups (p. 106), and claims that either 543 or 828 can represent the group as a whole. The studies of Geerlings, and the unpublished work of Geoffrey Farthing, also indicate that 826 stands near the center of the group.
It is widely believed that the Ferrar group is derived from a lost uncial ancestor once located in southern Italy or Sicily (possibly Calabria; see, e.g., the notes on 124 and 174).
In the decades after the Ferrar Group was discovered, it was found to have certain textual affinities with the Lake Group, the Koridethi Codex, and a handful of other minuscules. In 1924, B. H. Streeter suggested that the two groups, plus the Koridethi Codex, the minuscules 28, 565, and 700, and the Armenian and Georgian versions, were the remnants of a "Cæsarean" text-type.
In the following decades, the "Cæsarean" type was further subdivided. Ayuso, for instance, split it into a "pre-Cæsarean" group, containing P45 W (Mark) f1 f13 28, and the "Cæsarean" text proper, consisting of Q 565 700 Origen Eusebius and the early forms of the Armenian, Georgian, and Syriac versions.
This was, in fact, the first step toward what appears to be an unraveling of the "Cæsarean" text. Hurtado has shown, for instance, that P45 and W are not as close to the other "Cæsarean" witnesses as Streeter and Kenyon claimed. (It should be noted, however, that Hurtado at no point addresses Streeter's definition of the "Cæsarean" text; only his own. For a comparison of the non-Byzantine readings of Family 13 with those of other "Cæsarean" witnesses, see the item on 1eap and Family 1.)
For whatever value the information may have, Aland and Aland (who are not enthusiastic about the "Cæsarean" text) rate 13 (and most of the other members of its type) as Category III. The classifications of von Soden and Wisse have, of course, already been covered.
The following offers a brief summary of information about the various members of Family 13:
|13||XIII||Paris||Nat. Libr. 50||I|c||13||a||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels with several lacunae. Said to be "not correctly written."|
|69||XV||Leicester||Records Office 6 D||I|b||13||b||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||New Testament with lacunae. Lacks Matt. 1:1-18:15. Rapidly and poorly written on bad materials. See separate entry|
|124||XI||Vienna||Austrian Nat. Libr. Theol. Gr. 188||I|b||weak 13||b||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels. Missing Like 23:31-24:28. Scrivener reports, "The manuscript was written in Calabria, where it belonged to a certain Leo, and was brought to Vienna probably in 1564."|
|174||1052||Rome||Vatican Libr. Gr. 2002||I|b||L||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels with several lacunae, including John 8:47-end. Written by a monk named Constantine, and associated with "Georgilas dux Calabriae."|
|230||1013?||Escorial||Gr. 328 (Y. III. 5)||I|c||L||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels complete, written by a monk/priest named Luke (who miscalculated or miswrote the indiction)|
|346||XII||Milan||Ambrosian Libr. S. 23 sup||I|c||13 core||a||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels. Missing John 3:26-7:52. Bought in 1606 in Gallipoli, but thought by Ceriani to have been written in Italy.|
|543||XII||Ann Arbor||Univ. of Mich. MS. 13||I|c||13 core||a||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels with several lacunae. Scrivener's 556|
|788||XI||Athens||Nat. Libr. 74||I|b||13 core||b||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels. Missing John 21:20-end|
|826||XII||Grottaferrata||della badia Libr. A a 3||I|c||13 core||a||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels complete. "A beautiful codex: written probably at Rhegium" (Scrivener)|
|828||XII||Grottaferrata||della badia Libr. A a 5||I|c||13||a||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels complete|
|983||XII||Athos||Esphigmenu 31||I|a||13||c||SQE13, Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels. Missing John 11:34-19:9|
|1689||1200?||I|a||Soden, Merk, Bover, Huck-Greeven||Gospels (complete?). Lost.
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 73).
|1709||XII||Tirana||Staatsarchiv Koder-Trapp 15 fol. 141-194||Kx||(John only)|
von Soden: e368.
W. H. Ferrar and T. K Abbott, Collation of Four Important Manuscripts of the Gospels by the late William Hugh Ferrar, 1877, collated 13, 69, 124, and 346, establishing the Ferrar Group.
Aland & Aland (1 plate)
Editions which cite:
Family 13 is cited in NA26 and NA27 for the Gospels
Cited, along with 69, 346, 543, 788, and 983, in SQE13.
Family 13 is cited in all the UBS editions.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.
B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924) devotes considerable space to the relations between the various "Cæsarean" witnesses.
Kirsopp Lake & Silva Lake, Family 13 (The Ferrar Group): The Text According to Mark, Studies & Documents 11, 1941
Jacob Geerlings, Family 13 -- The Ferrar Group: The Text According to Matthew, Studies & Documents 19, 1961
Jacob Geerlings, Family 13 -- The Ferrar Group: The Text According to Luke, Studies & Documents 20, 1961
Jacob Geerlings, Family 13 -- The Ferrar Group: The Text According to John, Studies & Documents 21, 1962 (It should be noted that the Geerlings volumes suffer from significant methodological problems.)
E. C. Colwell, "Genealogical Method: Its Achievements and its Limitations," 1947, reprinted in Studies in Methodology in Textual Criticism of the New Testament, New Testament Tools and Studies IX, 1969, summarizes an attempt to apply Quentin's "Rule of Iron" to Family 13.
E. C. Colwell, "Method in Grouping New Testament Manuscripts," 1958, reprinted in Studies in Methodology in Textual Criticism of the New Testament, New Testament Tools and Studies IX, 1969, illustrates the various sorts of textual groupings based on Family 13 among others.
Larry W. Hurtado, Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark, Studies and Documents 43, 1981
Paris, National Library Greek 54. Soden's e449. Contains the Gospels with minor mutilations (Mark 16:6-20 are lost and the manuscript was "never quite finished" -- hardly surprising given the complexity of the copying process, as we will see below. The Ammonian Sections, for instance, are supplied only in Matthew and Mark, though the lectionary apparatus extends farther). It has a Latin parallel, but this is much less complete than the Greek. Dated by all authorities to the fourteenth century. Classified as Ibb by von Soden; other members of this group include 1216 1579 1588. Von Soden considered this group to be weaker than Iab (348 477 1279), but in fact both groups are largely Byzantine. Wisse, in evaluating 16, assigns it to its own group. Of this "Group 16" he remarks, "This group consists mainly of MSS. classified by von Soden as the weak group of Ib. However, the group is not simply a weakened form of Gr. 1216 [=152 184 348 477 513(part) 555 752 829 977 1216 1243 1279 1579 2174 2726], though it stands closer to Kx. If there is a relationship between Grs 16 and 1216 in Luke, it is a rather distant one." Other members of Group 16 include 119 217 330 491 578(part) 693 1528 (which Wisse pairs with 16) 1588. Despite Wisse's comments, this group is much more Byzantine than anything else, though the Alands do not place 16 in any Category.) Much more interesting than 16's actual text is the appearance of the text. Scrivener calls it "gorgeous and 'right royal,'" and the reason is not hard to see, for the manuscript is written in four colours (as well as being illustrated). Narrative is copied in vermillion; the words of Jesus and of angels, along with the genealogy of Jesus, are in crimson; blue is used for Old Testament quotations and for the speeches of those who might be regarded as sympathetic to Christianity: the disciples, Mary, Zechariah, Elizabeth, Simeon, John the Baptist; the words of evildoers (Pharisees, Judas, the Devil; also the mob) are in black, as are the words of the centurion and the shepherds (it is possible that these are by mistake). Gregory believes that an Armenian had a hand in its preparation, as it has Armenian as well as Greek quire numbers. The quires consist of five rather than four leaves. The manuscript was once owned by the Medicis.
Paris, National Library Greek 47. Soden's d411; Tischendorf/Scrivener 18e, 113a, 132p, 51r. Contains the New Testament complete. Dated by a colophon to 1364. Textually it is not noteworthy; the Alands list it as Category V (Byzantine) throughout. This agrees with Von Soden, who lists it as Kr, and Wisse, who also describes it as Kr in Luke. Wachtel lists it as Kr in the Catholics. In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. In Merk's apparatus, it is part of the K1 group, most closely associated with 1835 2039 2138 2200. According to Scrivener, the manuscript has two synaxaria between the Pauline Epistleas and Apocalypse, and otherwise full lectionary equipment, but (typically of Kr manuscripts) does not have the Eusebian apparatus. It was written at Constantinople.
Paris, National Library Greek 68. Soden's e286. Contains the Gospels with slight mutilations. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century (so Aland; Scrivener says tenth). Classified as Ia, by Von Soden -- that is, he regarded it as a mainstream "Western" or "Cæsarean" witness. More recent studies have not supported this classification. Wisse finds the manuscript to be Kx, and the Alands affirm this by placing 21 in Category V. The manuscript has pictures and most of the usual marginalia; the synaxarion was added by a later hand.
Paris, National Library Greek 72. Soden's e288. Contains the Gospels with some mutilations (lacking Matt. 1:1-2:2 4:20-5:25, John 14:22-16:27) and dislocated leaves. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century (so Aland, Gregory, Von Soden; Scrivener and Scholz preferred the eleventh). Classified as Ihb, by Von Soden. Ih is what we now refer to as family 1; the b group contains the poorer witnesses to the type (118 131 209 872). This view has received partial -- but only partial -- support from later scholars; Sanders (who published a "New Collation of Codex 22" in Journal of Biblical Studies xxxiii, p. 91) noted that Von Soden's collation is inaccurate, but in general supported the classification, and Streeter, while he believed 22 to be "Cæsarean," was not certain it was part of Family 1. The manuscript has a comment about the authenticity of Mark 16:9-20; it is somewhat similar to, but distinctly shorter than, that in 1. The Alands do not place 22 in any Category, implying that they do not regard it as purely Byzantine but also do not regard it as a member of Family 1 or any other noteworthy type. Wisse's conclusion is more interesting; he makes it a core member of the b subgroup of Group 22. Wisse does not analyse the nature of Group 22, but lists 660, 697, 791, 924, 1005, 1278, 1365, 2372, and 2670(part) as members of 22a while listing 22, 134, 149, 351(part), 1192, and 1210 as members of 22b. He also lists some seemingly related groupings. Describing 22 itself, Scrivener reports that it is a "beautiful copy, singularly free from itacisms and errors from homoeoteleuton, and very carefully accentuated, with slight illuminated headings to the gospels." The Eusebian apparatus is incomplete, and it lacks lectionary equipment.
Paris, National Library Greek 115. Soden's e1023. Contains the Gospels with slight mutilations; in addition, the text has been lost from John 18:3, being replaced by a supplement (on paper) which Scrivener dates to the fourteenth century. The main run of the text is dated paleographically to the tenth century (so Gregory and Aland; Scrivener says the eleventh). Classified by von Soden as Ifr; this is part of the amorphous group containing also Family 1424 (Ifa) as well as the groups headed by 7 and 1010. Ifr. This classification is largely affirmed by Wisse, who lists 27 as a member of M27 (Wisse lists two basic M groups, M27 and M1386, along with a number of subgroups). Wisse lists M, 27, 71, 248(part), 447(part), 518, 569, 692, 750, 830(part), 1914(part), 1032(part), 1170, 1222, 1228(part), 1413, 1415, 1458, 1626, 1663(part), and 2705 as members of M27. (Note that few of the members of Soden's other If groups go here; Von Soden's Ifr, corresponding to Wisse's M groups, stands distinct). It should be noted that the M groups are still Byzantine; the Alands place 27 in Category V. Physically, 27 has pictures and most of the usual marginalia including the Eusebian apparatus; the lectionary tables were added later, and Scrivener reports that it has been heavily corrected.
Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Nat. Gr. 379.
28 contains the gospels with lacunae (missing Matt. 7:19-9:22, 14:33-16:10, 26:70-27:48, Luke 20:19-22:46, John 12:40-13:1; 15:24-16:12, 18:16-28, 20:19-21:4, 21:19-end). John 19:11-20:20, 21:5-18 are from a later hand.
Dated paleographically to the eleventh century (the added leaves are from the fifteenth century). 28 is written on parchment, one column per page. Scrivener says it was "most carelessly written by an ignorant scribe;" and Streeter too calls the writer "ill-educated." Hatch comments, "Words written continuously without separation; accents and breathings; ruling with a sharp point, letters pendent; high and middle points, comma, colon (:), and interogation point; initials red; initials at the beginning of books ornamented with red, blue, green, and brown...." It has a synaxarion, but the lectionary indications are from a later hand. The Eusebian apparatus appears original.
Von Soden classifies 28 as Ia -- i.e. among the primary "Western/Cæsarean" witnesses. However, Aland and Aland remark that it is "Category III in Mark only; elsewhere V." Wisse generally agrees; although he labels 28 "mixed" in Luke 1, he puts it with Kx in Luke 10 and 20.
There is little doubt that most of 28's non-Byzantine readings are in Mark (there are a few in John); in the 889 test readings for which 28 exists, only 150 are non-Byzantine, and 92 of these are in Mark.
But what is this relatively non-Byzantine text of Mark? Streeter proposed that it was "Cæsarean;" Ayuso further classified it as "pre-Cæsarean" (along with P45 W (Mark) f1 f13). The "Cæsarean;" text has, however, come under severe attack in recent decades (though the crucial study, that of Hurtado, does not cite 28). Therefore it is perhaps useful to cite the agreement rates of 28 -- in both overall and non-Byzantine agreements -- for Mark (the data set is the same as that cited above. In Mark, 28 exists for 211 readings).
|Overall Agreements||Non-Byzantine Agreements||Near-singular agreements|
I would draw attention particularly to all three rates of agreement with f13, and also to the rate of near-singular agreements with 565. Whatever the type is called, there does appear to be kinship here. On the face of it, a common ancestral type between 23 and f13 seems nearly certain. Whether this was related to Q, etc. is less clear, though the data does seem to lean that way.
von Soden: e168.
Kirsopp Lake & Silva Lake, Family 13 (The Ferrar Group): The Text According to Mark, Studies & Documents 11, 1941 (Mark only)
Hatch (1 plate)
Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 for all four gospels, but in NA27 only for Mark.
Cited by Von Soden, Merk, and Bover for the gospels.
B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (MacMillan, 1924) devotes considerable space to the relations between the various "Cæsarean" witnesses (though 28 receives relatively little attention).
Paris. Catalog number: Bibl. Nat. Gr. 14.
33 originally contained the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse (as well as the LXX prophets, not including Daniel). Mark 9:31-11:11, 13:11-14:60, Luke 21:38-23:26 have been lost. In addition, the manuscript has suffered severely from damp; Tregelles said that, of all the manuscripts he collated (presumably excluding palimpsests), it was the hardest to read. The damage is worst in Acts, where some readings must be determined by reading the offprint on the facing page. In addition, Luke 13:7-19:44 are on damaged leaves and contain significant lacunae. 33 is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated paleographically to the ninth century (so Omont, Von Soden, Aland; Scrivener suggests the eleventh, while Gregory thought the prophets and gospels to come from the ninth century and the rest from the tenth). Several scribes seem to have been involved; Von Soden suggests that one wrote the Prophets and Gospels, another the Acts, Catholic Epistles, and Romans, and a third the remainder of Paul. Hatch supports this conclusion. The text supports this opinion in part; the manuscript changes type dramatically between Romans and 1 Corinthians. Hatch notes, "Words written continuously without separation; accents and breathings; ruling with a sharp point; letters pendent; high, middle, and low points and comma; initials brown... O.T. quotations sometimes indicated; numbers and titles of chapters; no Ammonian sections or Eusebian canons...." The Gospels have superscriptions and subscriptions; the Acts and Epistles have superscriptions but only occasional subscriptions and no sticoi.
33 was christened "the queen of the cursives" in the nineteenth century. At that time, it was without doubt the most Alexandrian minuscule text of the New Testament. Today its title as "best minuscule" may perhaps have been usurped for individual sections (892 is perhaps slightly more Alexandrian in the Gospels; 81 and 1175 rival it in Acts; in the Epistles, 1739 is at least as good and more interesting). But overall there is no minuscule with such a good text over so many books.
In the Gospels, 33 is mostly Alexandrian, of a late type, with a heavy Byzantine mixture (the extent of which varies from section to section). Wieland Willker, following a detailed analysis, is of the opinion that it has most of the major Byzantine variants but few of the minor, which he believes means that it an ancestor started with an Alexandrian text but was corrected very casually toward the Byzantine text (the corrector changing only those readings he noticed on casual inspection to be incorrect). This matches my own unstatistical impression.
In Acts, it is Alexandrian, though with a significant mixture of Byzantine readings. It appears closer to A than to or B. It is very close to 2344; the two almost certainly have a common ancestor. One might almost suspect 33 of being the ancestor of 2344 if it weren't for their differences elsewhere.
In Paul the manuscript falls into two parts. Romans, which is not in the same hand as the other books, is mostly Byzantine; Davies believes it to be akin to 2344. Elsewhere in Paul, 33 is purely Alexandrian, with almost no Byzantine influence. It is, in fact, the closest relative of , agreeing with that manuscript even more than A does.
In the Catholics, 33 is again purely Alexandrian; here it aligns most closely with A. These two are the main representatives of the main phase of the Alexandrian text, which also includes (in more dilute form) 81, 436, Y, bo, etc.
Von Soden lists 33 as H. Wisse lists it as Group B ("weak in [chapter] 1"). Aland and Aland list 33 as Category II in the Gospels and Category I elsewhere.
von Soden: d48. Tischendorf: 33e; 13a; 17p
Frequently collated in the nineteenth century (e.g. by Grisbach, Scholz, Tregelles); given the state of the manuscript, there is a real need for a modern collation using present-day resources.
Aland & Aland (1 page -- but this is of the ending of Romans)
Hatch (1 page)
Facsmile in Scrivener
Editions which cite:
Cited in all critical editions since Von Soden, and frequently in Tischendorf.
M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies & Documents 38, 1968) briefly discusses the relationship of 33 with 2344.
Paris, National Library Coislin Greek 199. Soden's d309; Tischendorf/Scrivener 35e, 14a, 18p, 17r. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. Contains the entire New Testament, without lacunae but with fairly heavy corrections. Von Soden classifies it as Kr in the Gospels (based probably on the marginalia), and Wisse confirms that it belongs to this group. Wisse places it (or, more specifically, the first hand) in subgroup 35 along with 141, 170, 204, 394, 402, 516c, 521, 553, 660c, 758*, 769, 797, 928, 1250, 1482, 1487, 1493, 1559, 1572, 1600, 1694*, 2204, 2261, 2554. (It is slightly peculiar to note that Wisse attributes the Kr recension to the twelfth century while accepting the eleventh century date for 35). In the Acts and Epistles, Von Soden lists 35 as part to Ib2, though he cites it only in Paul (where the members of Ib2 include 43 216 323 336 440 491 823 1149 1872 2298). This more or less corresponds to the judgement of the Alands, who do not place the manuscript in a Category (which usually implies a manuscript very strongly but not quite purely Byzantine). In the Apocalypse Von Soden places it in Ia3; Schmid places it in the "c" or Complutensian branch of the Byzantine text with manuscripts such as 432 757 824 986 1075 1740 1957 2061 2352 (compare Merk's Kc group). Physically, like most Kr manuscripts, it has extensive marginalia, including extensive lectionary equipment.
Paris, National Library Coislin Greek 200. Soden's d355; Tischendorf 38e, 19a, 377p; Scrivener 38e, 19a, 341p. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles with lacunae (lacking Matt. 14:15-15:30, 20:14-21:27, Mark 12:3-13:4). Von Soden classifies it as Ik in the Gospels, but Wisse lists it as Kx (Cluster 1053 in chapters 1 and 20; other members of this group include 31, 113(part), 298, 407(part), 435, 552(part), 1053, 1186(part), 1288(part), 1578(part), 2141(part), and 2724(part)). The Alands have little to add to this; they do not place 38 in a Category (which generally means that it is heavily but not purely Byzantine), but we are not told whether it is non-Byzantine in some areas or in all (Wachtel classifies it as 10-20% non-Byzantine in the Catholics, but tells us no more). In the Acts and Epistles, von Soden lists the manuscript as a member of Ia3 (the largest and most amorphous of the I groups, consisting largely of late Alexandrian witnesses with moderate to heavy Byzantine overlay). In Paul, it is cited after 1319 2127 256 263, implying that it may be a weak member of Family 2127 (Family 1319; see the entry on 365). In the Acts and Catholic Epistles, it still is listed with 1319 and 256; these manuscripts, however, have little if any value outside Paul. The manuscript has an interesting history; it was written for the Byzantine Emperor Michael Paleologus (reigned 1259-1282), and was given to the French King Louis IX (St. Louis, reigned 1226-1270, who died of the plague while on his way to lead what would be the Eighth Crusade). Scrivener calls it "beautiful"; it is illustrated, but has only limited marginal equipment (Ammonian sections but no Eusebian apparatus or lectionary data).
Lost. Formerly Frankfurt on the Oder, Gymnasium MS. 17. a107; Tischendorf/Scrivener 42a, 48p, 13r. A single leaf of a lectionary is also bound in this manuscript; this is Gregory 923; Tischendorf/Scrivener 287evl, 56apl. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. Contained the Acts, Epistles, and Revelation with lacunae; Acts 2:3-34, 2 Pet. 1:1-2, 1 Jo. 5:11-21, Rev. 18:3-13 are lost. Acts 27:19-34 are a supplement from another hand. Von Soden classified 42 as Kc in the Acts and Paul; K in the Catholic Epistles, and Io2 in the Apocalypse. Schmid placed it in the in the main or "a" group of Apocalypse manuscripts -- the chief Byzantine group, headed by 046. Beyond this we cannot add much, since the manuscript is lost; the Alands were obviously unable to assign it to a Category. Scrivener describes it as "carelessly written, with some rare readings." Its text is said to resemble that of 51 and the Complutensian Polyglot; this appears to confirm Von Soden's classification in part, as 51 is also a Kc manuscript.
Paris, Arsenal 8409, 840. Soden's e107, a270; Tischendorf/Scrivener 43e, 54a, 130p. Variously dated; Scrivener lists the whole as elevenh century, Soden lists the gospels as eleventh and the rest as twelfth; Aland lists both parts as twelfth century. Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles (in two volumes with slightly different formats). Von Soden classifies it as Kx in the Gospels. Wisse concurs, specifying that it is part of Cluster 43 (15, 43, 680, 1163, 1350, 1364, 1592, 2195(part), 2420, 2539) and pairs with 2420. The Alands do not explicitly concur, as they do not place the manuscript in any Category -- but this is probably based on the text of the epistles, not the gospels. In the Acts and Epistles, von Soden classifies 43 as Ib (and cites it with Ib2 in Paul; the members of this group, however, are not particularly distinguished). Wachtel lists it as having between 10% and 20% non-Byzantine readings in the Catholics. Scrivener reports that, in the Gospels, the Eusebian apparatus is from the first hand but the lectionary notes are later; he speculates that it was written at Ephesus.
Cambridge, University Library Dd. IX. 69. Soden's e1321, a1594; Tischendorf/Scrivener 60e, 10r. Contains the Gospels and Apocalypse complete, though probably written separately (Scrivener reports that "[t]he Gospels appear to have been written in the East, the Apocalypse in the West of Europe." A colophon dates it to 1297, but this probably applies only to the Gospels; the Apocalypse appears more recent. Von Soden classifies it as Kx in the Gospels, but Wisse elaborates this to Cluster 1685, "consisting of MSS 60, 1454, and 1685, [and] closely related to Cl 7 and Kx Cl 1084. Thus, although the manuscript is perhaps not purely Kx, it is strongly Byzantine, which the Alands support by classifying it as Category V. In the Apocalypse it is also Byzantine; Von Soden places it in Ia7, with manuscripts such as 432 2067; Schmid places it in the "c" or Complutensian branch of the Byzantine text with manuscripts such as 35 432 757 824 986 1075 1740 1957 2061 2352 (compare Merk's Kc group). Physically, Scrivener reports that it is an elegant copy, that it has lectionary apparatus (added later), and that it has the Ammonian but not the Eusebian apparatus. In the Apocalypse, "[it] has a few scholia from Arethas about it."
Dublin, Trinity College A 4.21. Soden's d603; Tischendorf/Scrivener 61e, 34a, 40p, 92r. Contains the New Testament complete. Generally dated to the sixteenth century (though Scrivener admits that a fifteenth century date is possible on paleographic grounds). Its text is not of particular note; Von Soden classifies it as Kx, and there is no reason to doubt this (though Wisse did not profile it due to its late date). The Alands place it in Category V in the Gospels and Acts (confirming that it is at least Byzantine if not a member of Kx); in the Epistles and the Apocalypse they raise it to Category III. That it is non-Byzantine in the Apocalypse is confirmed by Schmid (though Von Soden listed it as a Koine witness); it is close to 69 (though not, as Dobbin thought, a copy of that manuscript). What is noteworthy about this manuscript, however, is not its text (which is at best mildly interesting) but the historical use to which it was put. 61 is the manuscript which was presented to Erasmus to force him to include the "three heavenly witnesses" passage (1 John 5:7-8) in his third edition of the Textus Receptus. It is believed that the codex was written for this express purpose, and in some haste; at least three and possibly four scribes were involved in the project (the gospels having quite likely been written before Erasmus's edition was published, then the Acts and Epistles added to confute him; the Apocalypse may be later still; a date of around 1580 has been conjectured for it). Dobbin thought the Acts and Epistles might have been copied from 326, although the latter manuscript seems somewhat more interesting than 61. It has also been supposed that the gospels were taken from 56, but as 56 is a Kr manuscript, it is possible that another copy of that text was used. The haste with which 61 was written is perhaps evidenced by its lack of lectionary apparatus (though it has the kefalaia and Ammonian/Eusebian apparatus) and by the number of later corrections it required. It has been said that the only page of the manuscript to be glazed is that containing 1 John 5:7-8, but in fact the paper is glazed throughout; it is simply that so many readers have turned directly to that passage that the wear and tear has caused the glazing to be visible on that page as on no other.
Cambridge, Trinity College O.viii.3. Soden's e519. Contains the Gospels complete. Estimates of its date vary widely; Scrivener offers the twelfth century, the Alands the fourteenth, von Soden the fifteenth. Textually; Von Soden classifies it as Kr, and Wisse concurs though he notes that it has a "large surplus." The Alands, unsurprisingly, place it in Category V. It is unusual for a Kr manuscript in that it has the Ammonian and Eusebian apparatus. It also has illustrations, and contains ten blank pages (for some additional material which was not supplied?). Scrivener believes that two later hands have worked on it, the earlier making some corrections in the text while the later added some scholia in the margin.
Leicester. Catalog number: Town Museum Cod. 6 D 32/1
69 contains the entire New Testament with many lacunae. Missing Matt. 1:1-18:15, Acts 10:45-14:17 (the manuscript skips from Acts 10:45 to 14:17 without break; it would appear the scribe did not realize there was a defect in his exemplar here!), Jude 7-25, Rev. 19:10-22:21; Rev. 18:7-19:10 are fragmentary. The manuscript also contains five pages of assorted information about church history and doctrine.
Dated paleographically to the fifteenth century, probably to the period 1465-1472, since it was presented to George Neville, Archbishop of York, England during those years. The scribe is known from his other writings to have been Emmanuel, a former resident of Constantinople who spent the second half of the fifteenth century in England copying Biblical and classical texts. His writing style is absolutely peculiar; epsilons closely resemble alphas, and accents are often placed over consonants rather than vowels. Acute and grave accents are confused. Errors are also common; Scrivener counted 74 omissions of various sorts, and many words interrupted in the middle. The scribe also used the Nomina Sacra in peculiar ways; Ihsous is consistently spelled out until John 21:15, when contractions begin to be used sporadically. The manuscript appears to have been written with a reed. Scrivener also remarks, "Though none of the ordinary divisions into sections, and scarcely any liturgical marks, occur throughout, there is evidently a close connection between Cod. 69 and the church service books, as well in the interpolations of proper names, particles of time, or whole passages (e.g. Luke xxii. 43, 44 placed after Matt. xxvi.39) which are common to both...."
A number of marginal notes ("too many," Scrivener acidly remarks) are written in the hand of William Chark, who owned the manuscript probably in the late sixteenth century.
69 is written on a mix of paper and parchment. The quires are usually of five sheets rather than four, with two parchment and three paper sheets per quire, the parchment leaves being on the outside of the quire. The material is very poor -- so bad that one side of some of the paper leaves had to be left blank. The manuscript has one column per page. The books seem to have originally been in the order Paul (with Hebrews last), non-Biblical materials, Acts, Catholic Epistles, Apocalypse, Gospels.
The text of 69 varies significantly. In the Gospels it was identified by Ferrar with Family 13, and this has been affirmed by everyone since (Wisse classifies it as 13, and von Soden put it in Iib). However, some have thought it one of the best Family 13 manuscripts, and others count it one of the poorer. Probably the peculiar readings generated by scribal errors had something to do with this. Within the Ferrar group, it has been placed in the "b" group (along with 174 and 788) by scholars from von Soden and Lake to Colwell. The Alands, interestingly, classify 69 as Category V (Byzantine) -- despite the fact that its profile (1341 631/2 222 50s) seems to be fairly typical for the Ferrar Group (e.g. 13 is 1501 711/2 312 54s; 346 is 1721 821/2 242 53s).
In the Acts even Scrivener concedes the text to be "less valuable." Von Soden classes it as Ia3, but places it among the lower members of the group. The Alands classify it as Category V.
It is generally agreed that 69 and 462 are closely akin in the Pauline Epistles. Their combined text is, however, only slightly removed from the Byzantine. The Alands classify 69 as Category III in Paul (they do not categorize 462). Von Soden places 69 and 462 next to each other in Ia3. Davies links 462 (and so by implication 69) with 330, 436, and 2344; her technique, however, makes these results questionable. There is as yet no clear evidence that 69 and 462 should go with any of the stronger members of the Ia3 group, such as Family 330 or 365 and Family 2127.
In the Catholics the Alands again classify 69 as Category V, and von Soden again classifies it as Ia3. Wachtel lists it as having 10-20% non-Byzantine readings. Richards classifies it as Mw, which makes it a mixed manuscript that does not seem to have any close relatives. This seems to conform with the results of Wachtel.
In the Apocalypse, the Alands classify 69 as Category V. Von Soden lists it as I', grouping it with 61 and 046.
von Soden: d505. Tischendorf: 31a, 37p, 14r
W. H. Ferrar and T. K Abbott, Collation of Four Important Manuscripts of the Gospels by the late William Hugh Ferrar, 1877, collates 13, 69, 124, and 346 in the Gospels.
F. H. A. Scrivener, An Exact Transcription of Codex Augienses, 1859, collates Paul and discusses the manuscript.
Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible (1 page)
Editions which cite:
Cited in SQE13 where it differs from Family 13 and the Majority Text.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.
Other Works:"Origin of the Leicester Codex of the
New Testament, 1887.
M. R. James, "The Scribe of the Leicester Codex," Journal of Theological Studies, v (1903/4).
London, Lambeth 528. Soden's e253. Scrivener's g of the Gospels. Contains the Gospels complete. Generally dated to the twelfth century; Scrivener offers the exact date 1100 C.E.. Classified by Von Soden as Ifr, along with M 27(part) 692(part) 1194; If as a whole is what Streeter calls Family 1424. Wisse partly corroborates Von Soden, making 71 a core member of the M27 group (while pointing out that M is not really a good example of the M type). Other members of M27 include M 27 71 248(part) 447(part) 518(part) 569 692 750 830(part) 1014(part) 1032(part) 1170 1222 1228(part) 1413 1415 1458 1626 1663(part) 2705. The Alands give this their usual half-hearted endorsement by refusing to place 71 in a Category; this generally means that the manuscript belongs to the Byzantine text but not one of the mainstream Byzantine groups. Scrivener reports that "This elegant copy, which once belonged to an Archbishop of Ephesus, was brought to England in 1675 by Philip Traheron, English Chaplain at Smyrna." It has a lectionary apparatus, and is said to have "many" later corrections. Scrivener also notes that "this copy presents a text full of interest, and much superior to that of the mass of manuscripts of its age." Mill thought its text similar to that of 29, though Wisse's analysis does not confirm this in Luke.
57 folios are in the British Museum in London (Catalog number: Add. 20003); 225 folios are in Alexandria (Patriarchal Library MS. 59). The British Museum portions were taken from Egypt, where Tischendorf "discovered" the manuscript.
81 contains the Acts and Epistles. Acts 4:87:17, 17:28-23:9 have been lost. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated by its colophon to April 20, 1044, and written by a scribe named John.
81 has been called "the best minuscule witness to Acts." It is consistently Alexandrian (although with some Byzantine corruptions). In Paul, its text seems to fall somewhere between the early and late forms of the Alexandrian text, and may represent a transitional phase in the evolution of that text (most late Alexandrian witnesses -- e.g. 436, 1175, family 2127, 2464 -- seem to be closer to 81 than they are to each other). In the Catholics it is again Alexandrian with some Byzantine mixture; it seems to be a slightly less pure form of the A/33 text.
Von Soden lists 81 as H. Aland and Aland describe it as "at least Category II."
von Soden: a162. Tischendorf: 61a; also loti and pscr
Editions which cite:
Cited for the Acts and Epistles by all editions since Von Soden.
Paris, National Library Gr. 237. Soden's O1; Tischendorf/Scrivener 10a, 12p, 2r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete. Universally dated to the tenth century. Includes a commentary (listed by Von Soden as that of Oecumenius, i.e. the pseudo-Oecumenius; Scrivener describes it simply as "scholia and other matter.") Von Soden did not classify it beyond listing it among the Oecumenius manuscripts, but Scrivener believed that "its value in the Apocalypse is considerable." This has not been confirmed by further research; Schmid places it in the main or "a" group of Apocalypse manuscripts -- the chief Byzantine group, headed by 046. This is confirmed by the Alands, who place 82 in Category V in all sections. Scrivener describes 82 as "neatly written," and notes that it contains non-Biblical matter (including the treatise of Dorotheus of Tyre mentioned in the entry on 177). The manuscript was included in the editions of Stephanus as ie'.
Munich, Bavarian State Library Gr. 518. Soden's e1218; Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by both Scrivener and Aland to the eleventh century; Von Soden prefers the twelfth. Von Soden classifies it as Kr, and Wisse concurs, listing it as a perfect member of the type. The Alands list it as Category V (Byzantine). Scrivener describes it as "beautifully written." It has all the marginalia expected of a Kr manuscript, even though (or perhaps because) it is one of the earliest examples of this type.
Paris, National Library Gr. 219. Von Soden's O14; Tischendorf/Scrivener 12a, 16p, 4r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete, with commentary. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. The commentary on the Acts and Epistles is that of the (pseudo-)Oecumenius; that on the Apocalypse is that of Arethas. As an Oecumenius manuscript, Von Soden does not really classify the text (beyond listing it as Ko in the Apocalyse), but the Alands do not list it as Category. This implies that it is largely but not quite purely Byzantine. In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. Scrivener describes it as "neat," with lectionary tables but no apparatus. It once belonged to the Medicis.
Paris, National Library Coislin Gr. 205. Von Soden's a51; Tischendorf/Scrivener 17a, 21p, 19r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with lacunae (lacking 1 Cor. 16:17-2 Cor. 1:7; Heb. 13:15-25; Rev. 1:1-2:5 is an addition by a later hand). The colophon, written by a monk named Anthony, dates it to the year 1079 (though for some reason the Kurzgefasste Liste simply gives the manuscript's date as XI). The text is described by Von Soden as a mix of I and K types in the Acts, and as purely K (Byzantine) elsewhere. The Alands do not place 93 in any Category, but this implicitly supports Von Soden, as uncategorized manuscripts are usually very heavily but not quite purely Byzantine. Wachtel lists it as being between 20% and 30% non-Byzantine in the Catholic Epistles. In the Apocalypse, Schmid places 93 in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. The manuscript has the usual lectionary equipment, prologues, etc.
Paris, National Library Coislin Gr. 202 (folios 27-328; this number also includes a portion of Hp). Von Soden's O31 and An24; Tischendorf/Scrivener 18a, 22p, 18r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete and with commentary. The Apocalypse is dated paleographically to the twelfth century; the Acts and Epistles to the thirteenth (so the Kurzgefasste Liste; Scrivener lists eleventh and twelfth, respectively. The change in script corresponds to a change in material; the first portion is on parchment, the rest on paper). The commentary on the Apocalypse is that of Andeas; Von Soden lists the rest as having the commentary of the (pseudo-)Oecumenius, though Scrivener describes it simply as "scholia to the Acts and Catholic Epistles... [prologues] to St. Paul's Epistles." Von Soden, as usual, classifies the text by its commentary; the Alands list it as Category III in the Acts and Catholic Epistles "but clearly lower for Paul and Revelation." In the Catholic Epistles, Wachtel lists it as having from 30% to 40% non-Byzantine readings.
British Museum, London. Catalog number: Harley 5537.
104 contains the Acts, Epistles, and Revelation complete. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated by its colophon to 1087.
Generally listed as an Alexandrian witness, and it does have Alexandrian readings in the Epistles, although it is more Byzantine than anything else. There are also hints of other text-types -- e.g. 104 shares a certain number of readings with family 1611. On the whole, the best description of the manuscript is probably "mixed."
Von Soden lists 104 as H in the Acts and Epistles; he lists is at Ib2 in the Apocalypse. Merk places it in the Anr group (a sub-group of the Andreas text). Aland and Aland describe it as Category III in Paul and the Catholics, Category V in Acts and the Apocalypse.
von Soden: a103. Tischendorf: 25a; 31p; 7r
Editions which cite:
Cited by NA26 for Paul.
Cited by NA27 for Paul.
Cited by UBS3 for Acts, Paul, and the Catholics.
Cited by UBS4 for Paul.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover.
London, British Museum Harley 5778. Soden's a204; Tischendorf/Scrivener 28a, 34p, 8r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with some mutilations: Acts 1:1-20, Rev. 6:14-8:1, 22:19-21 "and perhaps elsewhere" (so Scrivener, who collated the Apocalypse). Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Classified as K by Von Soden, and the Alands concur by placing it in Category V. In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. Scrivener describes it as being in "wretched condition, and often illegible."
London, British Museum Harley 5559. Soden's e1096. Contains the Gospels with extensive mutilations: Matt. 1:1-8:10, Mark 5:23-36, Luke 1:78-2:9, 6:4-15, John 11:2-end are all lost, though a few additional words of John 11 can be read. Generally dated to the tenth century; though Scrivener gives a twelfth century date. Classified as Ifb by von Soden; other members of this group include 7 179 267 659 827 and parts of 185 1082 1391 1402 1606. Wisse, however, does not concur; he finds the manuscript to be Kmix/Kx/Kmix. The Alands do not assign 115 to a Category; this is not surprising for a manuscript with a text close to but not identical to Kx. The manuscript has only a limited set of reader aids; according to Scrivener, it offers kefalaia, "some" titloi, the Ammonian sections, and "frequently" the Eusebian apparatus; Scrivener speculates that the manuscript was "never quite finished."
Oxford, Bodleian Library Auct. D. infr. 2.17 (was Boldeian Misc. Gr. 13). Soden's e346. Contains the Gospels with some defects; later hands supplied Matt. 1:1-6:2; Luke 13:15-14:20, 18:8-19:9, John 16:25-end. The binding also contains portions of the Psalms on paper. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. 118 is one of the manuscripts found by Lake to belong to Family 1; every examination since has confirmed this. Von Soden listed it as Ihb, i.e. part of the b subgroup of Family 1; other manuscripts he places in this group include 22, 131 (in Mark and Luke), 209, and 872 (in Mark). Wisse concurs as well, listing 118 as a core member of Family 1. The Alands, interestingly, do not place 118 in any Category, but do list it with Family 1. Most seem to agree with Von Soden in placing 118 closer to 209 than to 1 and 1582. Scrivener reports the manuscript to be a palimpsest, but with the gospel text uppermost. It has the full set of scribal aids, though the lectionary tables were added later. For more details on the text, see the entry on Family 1.
Rome, Vatican Library Greek 757. Soden's A201 and Ci24. Contains the Gospels with a commentary and minor lacunae. Universally dated to the twelfth century. The commentary on Mark is that of Victor; elsewhere Scrivener lists it as being primarily from Origen, though Von Soden considers it to be the "Antiochene commentary" (Chrysostom on Matthew, Victor on Mark, Titus of Bostra in Luke) in the Synoptic Gospels while John is listed as having the "Anonymous Catena." The text itself Von Soden places in the Ac group -- a generally undistinguished group containing such manuscripts as 127, 129, 137, 139, 143, 151, 374, 377, 391, 747, 989, 1312, 1313, 1392. In any case Wisse's classifications do not accord with von Soden's; the manuscripts von Soden lists as Ac appear to belong to almost every Byzantine subgroup. 138 itself was profiled only in Luke 1, but there Wisse lists it as Kx This is supported by the Alands, who classify 138 as Category V. Scrivener summarizes Burgon's report on the manuscript by saying that the commentary is "mixed up with the text, both in a slovenly hand."
Rome, Vatican Library Greek 1160. Soden's d408; Tischendorf 141e, 75a, 86p, 40r. Contains the New Testament complete. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth cetury by Gregory, Aland, Scrivener; von Soden prefers the fourteenth. The text of the manuscript is not noteworthy; both Von Soden and Wisse declare it to belong to Kr in the Gospels, and the Alands classify 141 as Category V throughout. In the Apocalypse Schmid places it in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. It is in two volumes, with the two volumes numbered separately. In the Acts and Epistles it has the Euthalian apparatus, though it does not appear to have the text. The full lectionary equipment is supplied, and it has pictures, but like most Kr manuscripts it lacks the Eusebian apparatus.
Rome, Vatican Library Urbin Gr. 2. Soden's
Contains the Gospels complete. Universally dated to the twelfth century, based both
on the writing and on a pair of pictures, of the Emperor Alexius Comnenus
(Byzantine Emperor 1081-1118) and his son John (II) Comnenus (1118-1143). It
was apparently written for John Comnenus, and was
was brought to Rome by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534).
Classified as Is
by von Soden, the other members of this group being 235(part) 245 291
713 1012. Wisse's data, however, paints a completely different picture;
he finds 157 to be a member of Kx in Luke 1, mixed with
some relationship to the Alexandrian text ("Group B") in Luke 10,
and Alexandrian in Luke 20. The other manuscripts of
Is do not
share this profile, and in fact do not seem to be related to each other at all.
That 157 is mixed is confirmed by the Alands, who list it as
Category III, and by Hort,
who considered it mixed but still the most important minuscule
of the gospels other than 33. Streeter thought it Alexandrian
with "Cæsarean" influence -- but it should be noted
that Streeter thought everything had "Cæsarean" influence.
Zahn thought it might have had Marcionite influence. Hoskier, who collated it
(J.T.S. xiv, 1913), thought there were points of contact with the
Palestinian Syriac. 157 is noteworthy for having the
Jerusalem Colophon after each gospel.
Scrivener observes that 157 is "very beautifully written... [with]
certain chronicles and rich ornaments in vermillion and gold." It has
other pictures in addition to the portraits of the Emperors, as well as lectionary
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 68).
Rome, Vatican Library Barb. Gr. 445. Soden's e213. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to the year 1123. Classified as Ifc by von Soden, the other members of this group being 945 990 1010 1207(part) 1223 1293. If is Streeter's Family 1424, but the c branch, if it is part of the family at all, is very weak. Wisse lists 160 as Mixed in Luke 1 and Kx Cluster 160 in Luke 10 and 20. It is interesting to note, however, that all three manuscripts which Wisse lists in Cluster 160 (160, 1010, and 1293) are in fact members of Ifc. Given the connection of this group with Kx, it is surprising to note that the Alands do not list a Category for 160. The manuscript itself has the full lectionary equipment and the Ammonian Sections, but no Eusebian apparatus.
Rome, Vatican Library Barb. Gr. 449. Soden's e214. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to May 13, 1153. Classified as I by von Soden, but with no subgroup specified; it is not one of his regularly cited manuscripts. It would appear that this was a casual classification -- based, perhaps, on the manuscript's reading in Luke 11:2, where it has elqetw sou to pneuma to agion kai kaqarisatw hmas for elqetw h basileia sou -- a reading shared, in its essentials, by 700, Marcion (or Tertullian), Maximus, and Gregory of Nyssa but no other known witnesses. In any case, Wisse does not concur; he lists 162 as Kx/Kmix/Kx, and the Alands confirm its Byzantine nature by placing it in Category V. The manuscript, written by one Manuel, has the Eusebian apparatus but no lectionary equipment at all.
Rome, Vatican Library Gr. 2002. Soden's e109. Contains the Gospels complete with major lacunae; Matt. 1:1-2:1, John 1:1-27, 8:47-end are gone. Dated by its colophon to September 7, 1052. Classified as Iib -- that is, as part of Family 13 -- by von Soden, but only in Matthew is it cited. Wisse confirms that its text shifts, for he places it in Group L in Luke. The Alands seem to confirm this; although they list 174 as a member of Family 13 in NA27, they do not assign it to a Category (most members of Family 13 are Category III; the fact that 174 is not implies that it is weaker than other members of the family). For more details on Family 13, see the entry on that manuscript. 174 itself was written by a monk named Constantine under the authority of "Georgilas dux Calabriae" [Scholz]. It has the full Ammonian and Eusebian apparatus, plus lectionary indications, but the lists of readings, if it had any, have not survived.
Rome, Vatican Library Gr. 2080. Soden's d95; Tischendorf/Scrivener 175e, 41a, 194p, 20r. Contains the entire New Testament except for Matt. 1:1-4:17. Dated paleographically to the tenth century (so Gregory, Aland, von Soden; Scrivener would allow any date between the tenth and twelfth). Von Soden classifies the Gospels as Kx, but Wisse lists them as weak Pa. The Alands seem to agree with the latter judgement, as they do not place 175 in any Category (which usually means that the manuscript is strongly Byzantine but not a member of Kx or Kr). In the Acts and Epistles, Von Soden lists the text as K (Byzantine), and there is no reason to doubt this. In the Apocalypse Schmid places it in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. The arrangement of the sections is unusual; Scrivener notes that the book places them in the order Gospels, Acts (with scholia), Apocalypse, Catholic Epistles, Paul. The book has "some" marginal corrections from the first hand. Paul has the Euthalian subscriptions, but otherwise the marginal equipment is limited.
Munich, Bavarian State Library Gr. 211. Soden's a106; Tischendorf/Scrivener 179a, 128p, 82r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century (so Soden, Scrivener, and the Liste; Delitzsch suggested the thirteenth century). Von Soden classifies it as Ia3 in the Acts and Paul; in the Catholic Epistles he lists it as K. If it is a member of Ia3 (a group consisting mostly of late Alexandrian witnesses with greater or lesser degrees of Byzantine mixture), it must be a weak one, as the Alands list 177 as Category V (Byzantine) throughout. In the Apocalypse Schmid places 177 in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. In addition to the New Testament material, it contains the treatise by Dorotheus of Tyre (fl. c. 360) on the Twelve and the Seventy (found also in 82, 459, etc.). Scrivener reports that the text is "very near that commonly received." It also contains fragments of Eusebius's canon tables (perhaps implying that it was once a complete New Testament); there are marginal scholia on Paul from a later hand.
Rome, Angelicus Library 11. Soden's e211. Contains the gospels with lacunae. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Classified as Ifb; other manuscripts of this group include 7 115 179 185(part) 267 659 827 1082(part) 1391(part) 1402(part) 1606(part). This classification is not confirmed by Wisse, who lists 179 as Mix/Kx/Kx and seems to dissolve the If groups (except for Ifr). The Alands do not place 179 in any Category, implying that they agree with Wisse's classification as mostly but not purely Byzantine. The lectionary lists in 179 are in a later hand (fifteenth or sixteenth century) on supplied leaves. Seven other leaves (five at the end) are also from later hands.
Rome, Vatican Library Borgiae Gr. 18. Soden's e1498, a300; Tischendorf/Scrivener 180e, 82a, 92p, 44r. Contains the New Testament complete. The gospels, which were written by one Andreas, are dated paleographically to the twelfth century (so Aland; Scrivener says XI, and Gregory proposed XIV). The remainder of the New Testament (with some additional material) were written by John, evidently in November 1273. The gospels are classified as Kx by von Soden (this seems to have been the only section he examined), and this is confirmed by Wisse, who places it in Kx Cluster 180 in the two chapters profiled. Other members of Cluster 180 are 998 and 1580. The Alands also confirm that 180 is Byzantine in the Gospels, where they place it in Category V. They also classify it as Category V in Paul, the Catholic Epistles, and the Apocalypse (in the latter it goes with the largest "a" Koine group headed by 046); in the Acts, however, they raise it to Category III. Includes lectionary apparatus.
Rome, Vatican Library Reg. Gr. 179. Soden's a101, a1578; Tischendorf/Scrivener 40a, 46p, 12r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse. The basic run of the text, containing the Acts and Catholic Epistles, plus Paul through Titus 3:3, is dated to the eleventh century. The remainder of the text (Titus 3:3-end, Philemon, and the Apocalypse) was supplied in the fifteenth century. The text is arranged according to the Euthalian edition, and so is classified by Von Soden as Ia1 -- most of the other members of this group (which contains 88 917 1898 throughout the Acts and Epistles, plus in the Acts and Catholics 36 307 431 610 453 915 1829 1874, in Paul and the Catholics 1838, and 1912 in Paul alone) are also Euthalian (see Von Soden i.674). In Paul, however, 181 does not seem to be a good representative of the type; samples indicate that its text is about 80% Byzantine, and there are hints of block mixture with the Byzantine text. In the Acts the text is noticeably better, and has a number of Alexandrian readings. The Alands place 181 in Category III. in the Acts and Epistles, V in the Apocalypse (though their numbers in the Catholics barely qualify it for that category, and it does not appear in Wachtel's lists. Clearly 181 is better in the Acts than elsewhere). The later additions to the manuscript are classified as Ia2 by Von Soden; in the Apocalypse it has an Andreas type of text (though not the commentary), forming part of the group which also contains 1 598 2026 2028 2029 2031 2033 2038 2044 2052 2054 2056 2057 2059 2060 2065 2068 2069 2081 2083 2186 2286 2302. 181 itself, however, does not have the text of the commentary. It does have lectionary apparatus but no synaxarion. We first hear of the manuscript during the papacy of Alexander VIII (1689-1691), when Christina presented it to that pope.
Florence, Bibl. Laurenz. VI.16. Soden's e410. Contains the gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the fourteenth century (Scrivener says twelfth). Classified by von Soden as Ifb (but in John only); other manuscripts of this group include 7 115 179 185(part) 267 659 827 1082(part) 1391(part) 1402(part) 1606(part). This classification is not confirmed by Wisse, who lists 185 as Cluster 1531 along with such manuscripts as 1531, 2291, 2387, and 2771. The Alands list 185 as Category V (Byzantine). It should be noted, however, that neither Wisse nor the Alands examined readings in John; thus its text has not been fully examined. Physically 185 is not noteworthy; it has lectionary indications and the Ammonian Sections but not the Eusebian apparatus.
Florence, Bibl. Laurenz. VI.27. Soden's e1401, a269; Tischendorf/Scrivener 189e, 141a, 239p. Contains the Acts and Epistles complete and the gospels with lacunae (lacking John 19:38-end). The Acts and Epistles are dated paleographically to the twelfth century, and the Gospels to the fourteenth (except that Scrivener dates the whole to the twelfth century). The gospels are classified as Kr by Von Soden, and this is confirmed by Wisse (who further classifies 189 as Cluster 189 along with 1236, 1625, and perhaps 825). This is consistent with the marginal apparatus of 189, which lacks the Ammonian/Eusebian material. The Alands also concur, describing 189 as Category V (Byzantine). Outside the gospels, the Alands still list 189 as Category V, agreeing with Von Soden's "K" classification. The manuscript has the Euthalian apparatus (though not the arrangement or text). Scrivener describes the manuscript itself as "minute [certainly true; it measures 12 cm. x 7 cm.] and beautifully written."
London, British Museum Add. 11837. Soden's d403; Tischendorf/Scrivener 201e, 91a, 104p, 94r; also mscr (Gospels); pscr (Acts/Paul); bscr (Apocalypse). Contains the compete New Testament. Dated by a colophon to 1357. The gospels are classified as Kr by Von Soden, and this is confirmed by Wisse (who notes that it is a "perfect member" of the group). The Alands also concur, listing 201 as Category V in all sections. Wachtel lists it as a member of Kr in the Catholics. In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a" group of the Byzantine text headed by 046. Scrivener says of it that it has "many changes by a later hand;" it also has a very full marginal apparatus, including prologies, subscriptions, and stichoi lists, plus "some foreign matter." Rather curiously for a Kr manuscript, it has the Ammonian Sections and "some" of the Eusebian numbers.
London, British Museum Add. 28816. Soden's
Tischendorf/Original Gregory 203a, 477p, 181r;
Scrivener 232a, 271p (Acts/Paul), 107r.
Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with lacunae (lacking 1 Cor. 16:15-end
plus the prologue to 2 Corinthians; Eph. 5:3-6:16 is supplied in a fifteenth
century hand). At the end of the volume are ten pages of non-Biblical material
(in the original hand).
These include a list of the errors condemned by the seven ecumenical councils;
Scrivener says that this resemble the exposition in 69.
Dated by a colophon to 1111.
Von Soden classifies the manuscript as Ic2 in the Acts and Epistles
(though he cites it only in Paul, where the other members of the group include
221 257 378 383 385 506 639 876 913 1610 1867 2147). This group is of some
interest in the Catholic Epistles (where many of its members are part of
Family 2138), but in Paul they
seem generally to be of limited value. This is confirmed by the Alands, who
place 203 in Category V.
In the Apocalypse, Schmid places it in the dominant or "a"
group of the Byzantine text headed by 046.
Scrivener says of it that it is "a splendid copy," with
"many marginal glosses in a very minute hand." It has
numbers in red in the margins and the entries themselves before
each epistle. It has the Euthalian apparatus, and Arethas's
prologue and tables on the Apocalypse. It has lectionary indications
but no titloi. The scribe was named
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 67).
Venice, Bibl. San Marco 420 (Fondo ant. 5). Soden's d500; Tischendorf/Scrivener 205e, 93a, 106p 88r. Contains the complete New Testament and the Greek Old Testament. Dated paleographically to the fifteenth century. The text of 205 has long been recognized as being very close kin to the earlier 209 (at least in the Gospels). The two are such close kin that several scholars, starting with Rinck, have believed that 205 is a copy of 209. Burgon offered the theory that both were copied from the same uncial ancestor. While the manner has not been definitively settled, the modern opinion seems to be that 205 is not copied from 209, but that they have a close common ancestor. 209, of course, is known to be a member of Family 1; it therefore follows that 205 must also be part of this group. Von Soden acknowledges this by placing 205 in the Ih group (Family 1; 209 is a member of the "b" subgroup), and Wisse concurs, going so far as to say "Pair with 209." (Curiously, the Alands do not list 205 as a member of Family 1, and even insist on citing 205 separately in SQE13. They do list both manuscripts in the same Categories: Category III in the Gospels and Apocalypse; Category V in the Acts and Epistles.) In the Acts and Epistles, 205 is listed by Von Soden as Ia (again agreeing with 209, which is Ia3). The data of the Alands, however, clearly implies that 205 is Byzantine (rather than late/mixed Alexandrian, as Von Soden's classification would imply). This also means that we cannot determine the manuscript's relationship with 209 without detailed examination. In the Apocalypse, Von Soden lists 205 as an Andreas manuscript, even though it lacks the commentary. Physically, 205 is a rather large volume but with limited marginalia; it lacks the entire Eusebian apparatus (209, by contrast, has the Ammonian sections but not the Eusebian canons) as well as all lectionary data. It has the kefalaia in both Greek and Latin, subscriptions, and prologues to the Pauline and Catholic Epistles. It was written for Cardinal Bessarion, probably by his librarian John Rhosen. A copy of 205 exists; now designated 205abs, it is Tischendorf/Scrivener 206e, 94a, 107p, 101r. (Note: It is the opinion of most examiners that 205 is the original and 205abs the copy; Maurice Robinson, however, based on the text in the story of the Adulteress, believes that 205abs is the original and 205 the copy.) For more details on the text of 205, see the entry on 1 and Family 1.
London, Lambeth Palace 1182. Soden's a365; original Gregory 214a, 270p; Scrivener 182a, 252p, ascr; Hort 110. Contains the Acts and Epistles with minor lacunae and many later supplements; Acts 1:1-12:3, 13:5-15, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude are from a later (fourteenth century) hand. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century (except that Scrivener, who probably examined it most fully, says twelfth). Scrivener reports that the readings in Acts "strongly resemble those of , and  hardly less, especially in [chapters 13-17]." Von Soden lists the text of 206 as Ib1, placing it with 242 429 491 522 536 1758 1831 1891 in Acts (1739 2298 323, it should be noted, are key members of Ib2); in Paul the group members include 2 242 429 522 635 941 1099 1758 1831 1891; in the Catholics 206 is listed along with 216 242 429 440 522 1758 1831 1891. This classification (rather typically of Von Soden's groups) contains both truth and falsehood. Thomas C. Geer, Jr., in Family 1739 in Acts, studies 206 (among others), and finds that 206 is indeed a member of Family 1739 (along with 323 429 522 1739 1891; Geer does not examine the other members of von Soden's Ib group). Within Family 1739, the closest relatives of 206 are 429 and 522. Geer does not compare the first hand of 206 with 206supp, but he does compile separate statistics for the first and second halves of Acts. It is worth noting that, in chapters 1-14, 206 agrees only 81% of the time with 429, and 75% of the time with 1739 (Geer, p. 69), while in Acts 15-28, it agrees with 429 fully 93% of the time (though still only 77% of the time with 1739). Thus it appears quite likely that the supplements in 206, while having perhaps some kinship with Family 1739, has been heavily influenced by the Byzantine text. The original hand, by contrast, seems to belong to that subtext of Family 1739 represented also by 429 522 630 2200. This grouping is very significant, because these manuscripts are also akin in the Catholic Epistles. But in the Catholic Epistles, instead of being members of Family 1739 (which, it should be noted, is even more distinctive in the Catholics than in Acts), the 206-group shifts and become members of Family 2138. This kinship has been confirmed by all who have investigated the matter; Wachtel places 206 in his group Hkgr along with 429 522 630 2200 (plus such important manuscripts as 614 1505 1611 1799 2138 2412 2495, which are not related tothe 206-429-522-630-2200 group in Acts). Similarly, Richards places 206 in his A1 group along with 614 1611 1799 2138 2412 (in 1 John; the supplements in 2 and 3 John Richards finds to be Byzantine). And Amphoux places 206 in Family 2138 (along with nearly all the above manuscripts, plus such others as 1108 and 1518). In Paul, 206 has not been as heavily studied; our best information comes from the Alands, who list 206 as Category V in Paul (they list it as Category III in the Catholics -- along with all the other members of Family 2138; in Acts, they list 206 as Category V, but here the supplement may have mislead them). 429 and 522 are also Category V in Paul; it thus appears likely that these three manuscripts are related throughout. (630 and 2200 are not wholely Byzantine in Paul; in the latter books, they are Byzantine, but in Romans through Galatians they are weak members of Family 1739. In addition, they appear to be closer to 1739 in Acts. Thus 630 and 2200 might possibly represent a forerunner of the 206-429-522 text, but are not actually part of it.) Physically, Scrivener reports of 206 that it has Paul before the Catholic Epistles, that it is illustrated, that it has full lectionary apparatus, and that it includes antiphons for Easter and "other foreign matter." It is said to have come from a Greek island. See also the discussion on 429 or on 522.
Venice, Bibl. San Marco 542 (Fondo ant. 544). Soden's e129. Contains the Gospels with mutilations (John 18:40-end have been lost). Universally dated to the eleventh century. Classified by Von Soden as I0 -- a group which contains a very mixed bag of manuscripts: U X 443 1071 1321(part) 1574 2145. Wisse classifies 213 as mixed throughout. The Alands do not assign it to any Category. Some of the confusion may be due to a poor scribe; 213 has many strange properties. Scrivener notes "heroic verses as colophons to the Gospels," "[l]arge full stops in impossible places," the Ammonian/Eusebian apparatus "most irregularly inserted," and only scattered lectionary indications.
Ann Arbor. Catalog number: University of Michigan MS. 34. It was originally acquired at Janina in Epirus.
223 contains the Acts and Epistles, with some minor defects (in Paul, 2 Corinthians 1:1-3, Eph. 1:1-4, Hebrews 1:1-6 are missing; Scrivener believes they were cut out for the sake of the illuminations). It is written on parchment, 1 column per page. The parchment is of excellent quality, and the manuscript has many colorful illuminations, implying that unusual effort and expense was devoted to its preparation. Scrivener says of it, "This is one of the most superb copies extant of the latter part of the N.T., on which so much cost was seldom bestowed as on the gospels."
Dated paleographically to the fourteenth century. A colophon at the end of Jude states that it was written by Antonios of Malaka, who is also credited with writing 1305 (dated by its colophon to 1244) and 279 (dated paleographically to the twelfth century). The dating of the manuscript is thus problematic. It is noteworthy, however, that the colophon of 223 is not in the hand of the original scribe.
Von Soden lists 223 as Kc. Clark and his collaborators questioned this, since von Soden's collation was highly inaccurate. However, spot checks indicate that 223 possesses about 70% of the characteristic readings of Kc. Thus it is likely that it is at least a weak Kc witness.
Aland and Aland list 223 as Category V, i.e. Byzantine. This is clearly correct.
Richards lists 223 as belonging to his B3 group in the Johannine Epistles, having all nine of the characteristic readings in 1 John. Other members of this group, with von Soden's classification of them, are 97 (K), 177 (rather weakly, K), 1597 (Kx), 1872 (Ib2, but Kc in r), and 2423.
Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: a186. Scrivener: 220a; 264p. Tischendorf: 223a; 278p
K.W. Clark, Eight American Praxapostoloi (1941).
Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible (1 page)
Editions which cite:
Naples, Bibl. Naz., Cod. Vein. 9. Soden's e1210. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to 1192. The manuscript is among the smallest known, measuring less than 14 cm. by 10 cm. Perhaps to accommodate such a pocket edition, the Eusebian and Ammonian apparatus are omitted, as are most other reader helps except the lectionary markings (the manuscript is supplied with pictures, however). Classified by Von Soden as Ak -- a group which also contains 5, 15, 32, 53, 169, 269, 292, 297, 416, 431, 448, 470, 490, 496, 499, 534, 546, 558, 573, 715, 752, 760, 860, 902, 946, 968, 976, 987, 1011, 1015, 1058, 1091, 1163, 1167, 1171, 1211, 1227, 1291, 1299, 1321, 1439, 1481, 1484, 1498, 1566, 1800, 2142, and 2176. These manuscripts are, however, mostly Byzantine, and Wisse largely disregards this group. 225 itself he classifies as Kmix/1167/1167; other members of Group 1167 include 75 116(part) 245(part) 431 496 546 578(part) 843 896 951 1015 1167 1242(part) 1438 1479(part) 1511(part) 1570 2095(part) 2229 2604. The Alands more or less confirm that 225 is Byzantine but not a mainstream witness to the type by refusing to assign it to a Category. The most noteworthy thing about 225's text, however, is where it places the story of the Adulteress (John 7:53-8:11). Alone among all known witnesses, it places the story after John 7:36.
Escorial X.IV.21. Soden's e1206. Contains the Gospels with lacunae (lacking Mark 16:15-20, John 1:1-11). Dated by its colophon to 1140. Classified by Von Soden as Ikc -- i.e. as a offshoot of Family P; other members of this group include 280 473 482 1354. Wisse, however, reports that 229 is block mixed; it is Pa in Luke 1, Kx in Luke 10 and 20. The Alands do not assign it to a Category; this perhaps implies that the Family P element predominates, as they usually classify Kx witnesses as Category V but leave Family P witnesses unclassified. Scrivenery notes that it was written by "Basil Argyropolus, a notary." It includes pictures. A later hand has added lectionary indications and retraced parts of the text, as well as correcting various readings (apparently correcting the Family P text toward the Byzantine mainstream, as Scrivener reports that the original readings resemble those of A and K, both of which are associated with that family.)
Copenhagen, Kgl. Bibl. GkS 1323, 40. Soden's e456. Described by Scrivener as "written by the ieromonacos Philotheus, though very incorrectly; the text agrees much with Codd. DK. i. 33 and the Harkleian Syriac.... [T]he words are often ill-divided and the stops misplaced." The kinship with these manuscripts is, however, at best very weak; Von Soden lists it as Is (along with 157 245 291 713 1012), but cites it only for John. Wisse lists it as Kmix/Kx/Kx, and the Alands also regard it as Byzantine, listing it as Category V.
Moscow, Historical Museum V.16, S.278. Soden's e1226. Dated by its colophon to the the 1199. Written by "John, a priest" and formerly kept at the monastery of Batopedion. Von Soden categorizes its text as Is; other manuscripts of this type include 157 235(John) 291 713 1012. Wisse lists the text as Kmix/1167/1167. The members of Group 1167 do not correspond to those of Von Soden's group. Whatever its exact type, it seems certain that the manuscript is primarily Byzantine, and this is reflected by the Alands, who list it as Category V.
Moscow, Historical Museum V. 90, S.93. Soden's Ni10. Contains the Gospel of John (only), with a catena. Its dating varies wildly; Aland says XIV, Scrivener XI. Von Soden's number implies that he agrees with Scrivener. Von Soden lists it as having Nicetas's commentary on John, assigning its symbol on this basis (other manuscripts with this commentary include 317 333 423 430 743). Merk lists the text-type as K (Byzantine). Little else can be said of it; the Alands do not assign it to a Category (presumably because it contains only John, and they tested only Matthew through Luke), and Wisse of course does not profile it. Originally from Mount Athos.
Moscow, Russian Gosud. Library Greek 9. Von Soden's e192. Contains the gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the eleventh (Scrivener, von Soden) or twelfth (Aland) century. Von Soden lists it as a member of I' (the vaguest of all the I groups, containing a handful of Byzantine uncials, assorted uncial fragments -- not all of which are Byzantine -- and many mostly-Byzantine minuscules). Wisse lists 251 as a member of Cluster 1229, the other rmembers of this group being 1229 (which, like 251, von Soden lists as I') and 2487. The Alands do not assign 251 to a Category, implying that it contains at least some readings (though not many) which are not purely Byzantine. Physically, 251 has the Eusebian tables and Ammonian sections, but not the Eusebian marginalia; these perhaps were never finished. 251 has illustrations, but no lectionary equipment.
Paris, National Library Greek 53. Soden's e1020. Contains the Gospels complete, though the marginalia seem not to have been completed; Scrivener reports that it has "some" titloi. The Ammonian and Eusebian apparatus (including harmonizations) are complete in Matthew and Mark, but only partial, and in a later hand, in Luke and John. 262 is universally dated to the tenth century. Scrivener observed a similarity to L, and this is confirmed both by Von Soden (who places it in the Ir group with L 545 1187 1555 1573) and Wisse (who makes it a core member of Group L). The Alands assign it to Category V as Byzantine.
Paris, National Library Greek 61. Soden's d372. Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles complete. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century. The text is generally uninteresting; in the Gospels, von Soden listed it as K1, which Wisse corrects minimally to Kx, and the Alands list it as Category V (Byzantine). The Alands also place it in Category V in the Acts and Catholic Epistles (though Von Soden listed it as Ia3, based probably on the text of Paul). The one exception to this trend of ordinariness is in Paul. Here the Alands promote it to Category III, and Von Soden's Ia3 classification makes somewhat more sense. Bover, in particular, specifies it as a member of "Family 1319" (for which see the entry on 365 and Family 2127) -- and while 263 does not seem as good as the leading members of the family (256, 365, 1319, 2127), there does seem to be kinship. Scrivener believed the manuscript came from Asia Minor, and this is perhaps reasonable for a text somewhat related to the Armenian version. In the Gospels, it has Ammonian Sections but not the Eusebian equipment, and lectionary indications but no tables.
Paris, National Library Greek 66. Soden's e285. Contains the Gospels complete. Generally dated to the twelfth century, though Scrivener lists the tenth. Classified by Von Soden as Ika, i.e. as a member of the main Family P group, along with such manuscripts as A K Y P. This is confirmed by Wisse, who lists it as a core member of the main Pa group. The Alands do not place it in any Category; this is fairly typical for Family P manuscripts. Physically, the manuscript has the Eusebian apparatus but not much else; lectionary equipment is lacking.
Paris, National Library Greek 69. Soden's Contains the Gospels with minor lacunae (missing Matt. 1:1-8, Mark 1:1-7, Luke 1:1-8, Luke 24:50-John 1:12 -- perhaps cut out for the sake of illustrations or the like?). Generally dated to the twelfth century, though Scrivener lists the tenth. Classified by Von Soden as Ifb along with such manuscripts as 7 115 179 185(part) 659 827 1082(part) 1391(part) 1402(part) 1606(part). That it is close to 7, at least, is confirmed by Wisse, who places 267 in Cluster 7 along with 7, 1651, and 1651. The Alands place 267 in Category V (Byzantine). The manuscript is slightly unusual in having the Ammonian and Eusebian numbers in the same line.
Paris, National Library Greek 75. Soden's e291. Contains the Gospels complete. Generally dated to the twelfth century, though Scrivener lists the eleventh. Classified by Von Soden as Ikb (i.e. as a member of one of the weaker subgroups of Family P) along with such manuscripts as 726 1200 1375. Wisse confirms its kinship with the P groups, listing it as part of the b subgroup in Luke 1 and the a subgroup in Luke 10 and 20. The Alands place 270 in Category V (Byzantine). Curiously, Scrivener reports that the manuscript has both synaxarion and menologion (along with illustrations and the Eusebian apparatus), but no lectionary indications in the text.
Paris, National Library Greek 79. Soden's e370. Contains the Gospels with some slight damage, most of it made good by a supplement. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by Aland and von Soden; Scrivener lists the twelfth century and dates the supplements (which are on paper; the rest of the manuscript is vellum) to the fourteenth century. Classified by Von Soden as I', i.e. as one of the miscellaneous weak "Western" witnesses. Wisse, however, finds it to be mostly Byzantine; he lists it as Kmix/Kx/Kmix. The Alands do not place 273 in any Category, which usually means it is strongly but not quite purely Byzantine; this perhaps supports Wisse's analysis. Scrivener lists it as having a very full marginalia (though some of the lectionary material is from the later hand), and says of it that is "contains also some scholia, extracts from Sererianus's commentary, annals of the Gospels, a list of gospel parallels, with a mixed text."
Paris, National Library Greek 87. Soden's e294. Contains the Gospels with some damage (Mark 8:3-15:36 are missing). Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Classified by Von Soden as Ikc (i.e. as a member of one of the weaker subgroups of Family P) along with such manuscripts as 229 473 482 1354. Wisse confirms its kinship with the P groups, but lists it as a core member of the primary group Pa. The Alands place 280 in Category V (Byzantine); this may indicate that it it less pure in the other gospels than it is in Luke (since the Alands usually do not assign Pa manuscripts to any category). However, it could also be an indication of the Alands' lack of control of their Categories.
Paris, National Library Greek 113. Soden's e377. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the twelfth (Scrivener) or thirteenth (Aland, von Soden) century. Written with silver ink, but with relatively few reader aids (lectionary markings but no tables; no Ammonian or Eusebian apparatus). Classified by Von Soden as Is -- a strange mixed group containing also 157 235(part) 245 713 1012. Wisse however places 291 in its own Group 291, which he associates loosely with the P groups; other members of this group are 139 371 449 597 1235 1340 2346 2603 2728. The Alands place 280 in Category V (Byzantine).
Paris, National Library Greek 194. Soden's
A215. Contains the gospels of Matthew and Mark (only),
with commentary interspersed with the text. Dated paleographically
to the twelfth (von Soden, Aland) or thirteenth (Scrivener)
Classified by von Soden based on the commentary: He lists it as having the
"Anonymous Catena" on Matthew (one of only three manuscripts
to have this commentary, the others being 366 and 2482) and the
"Antiochene Commentary" of Victor on Mark. (Scrivener quotes
Burgon to the effect that the commentary on Mark is a "modification
of Victor's," however.) The Alands list 304 as
Category V (Byzantine). Since the manuscript
does not include Luke, it has not been studied by Wisse, but there is no
particular reason to doubt the Alands' judgement. Thus there is no reason
to consider 304 particularly unusual -- except for the fact that it is
commonly cited in critical apparati (NA27, UBS4,
etc.) as omitting the longer ending of Mark (16:9-20). Maurice Robinson
has examined a microfilm of the end of the manuscript, however, and offers
these observations: "[T]he primary matter [in 304] is the commentary.
The gospel text is merely interspersed between the blocks of commentary material,
and should not be considered the same as a 'normal' continuous-text MS. Also, it is often very
difficult to discern the text in contrast to the comments....
"Following gar2 at the close of [16:8], the MS has a mark like a filled-in 'o,' followed by many pages of commentary, all of which summarize the endings of the other gospels and even quote portions of them.
"Following this, the commentary then begins to summarize the eteron de ta para tou Markou, presumably to cover the non-duplicated portions germane to that gospel in contrast to the others. There remain quotes and references to the other gospels in regard to Mary Magdalene, Peter, Galilee, the fear of the women, etc. But at this point the commentary abruptly ends, without completing the remainder of the narrative or the parallels. I suspect that the commentary (which contains only Mt and Mk) originally continued the discussion and that a final page or pages at the end of this volume likely were lost.... I would suggest that MS 304 should not be claimed as a witness to the shortest ending...."
Paris, National Library Coislin Greek 25. Soden's Apr11; Tischendorf/Scrivener 15a. Contains the Acts and Catholic Epistles complete. Dated paleographically to the tenth (Aland) or eleventh (Scrivener) century. Commentary manuscript, described by both Von Soden and Scrivener as that of Andreas the Presbyter. Von Soden classified it as Ia1 (along with 36ac 88 181 307 431 453 610 915 917 1829 1836(caths only) 1874 1898). Some of these manuscripts probably are not allies of 307, but at least some are; an examination of the data in the UBS4 apparatus to Acts shows that 36, 307, 453, 610, and 1678 (all Andreas manuscripts) agree over 90% of the time (and 100% or nearly in non-Byzantine readings; for details, see the entry on 453). Geer, based on the data compiled by the Alands (who classify 307 as Category III), notes a very high agreement of 307 with 453 and 2818 (the new number for 36). The situation is slightly more complicated in the Catholic Epistles; here Wachtel identifies a group containing 36 94 307 453 720 918 1678 2197, but does not place 307 in the same subgroup as 453. The text of 307 itself is said to have been "compared with Pamphilius'[s] revision" [Scrivener].
Oxford, Bodleian Library Barroc. 3. Soden's O11; Tischendorf/Scrivener 23a, 28p, 6r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with severe mutilations. Losses include Acts 1:1-11:12 (with 1:1-3:10 replaced by a later hand), 14:6-17:19, 20:28-24:12, 1 Pet. 2:2-16, 3:7-21, 2 Cor. 9:15-11:9, Gal. 1:1-18, Eph. 6:1-19, Phil 4:18-23, Rev. 1:10-17, 9:12-18, 17:10-18:11. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. Commentary manuscript; Scrivener describes it as having "scholia on the Epistles" (identified by Von Soden as the commentary of (the pseudo-)Oecumenius) and "a full and unique commentary on the Apocalypse." As usual, Von Soden simply describes it as an Oecumenius manuscript; in the Apocalypse he lists it as being of type K0, but Merk modifies this to place it among the Arethas manuscripts. Schmid grouped it with the "a" or primary Byzantine group (headed by 046) in the Apocalypse. The Alands simply list it as Category V (i.e. Byzantine), though one wonders if they really had enough text of Acts for the determination to be reliable there. Scrivener calls it "a beautiful little book," and it certainly is small (13 cm. x 10 cm.), and in a small hand. Apart from the commentary, the only marginal equipment are the kefalaia; it also has prologues and titloi but no lectionary or other apparatus.
Paris, National Library Greek 212. Soden's Ni31. Contains somewhat more than half of John (10:9-end), with a commentary reported by von Soden to be that of Nicetas. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Textually, relatively little is known about the manuscript. Wisse did not examine it, as it does not contain Luke, and von Soden simply listed it among the Nicetas manuscripts (the other manuscripts with the Johannine portion of this commentary include 249 333 423 430 743). The Alands do not assign 317 to any Category, because they examined test readings only from the Synoptic Gospels. Thus 317 has never been subjected to any systematic textual evaluation.
Geneva. Catalog number: Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Gr. 20.
323 contains the Acts and Epistles. Acts 1:1-8, 2:36-45 are from a later hand; there are a few other minor defects. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. Scrivener calls it "beautifully but carelessly written, without subscriptions."
323 is very closely related to the fifteenth century minuscule 322; the two are evidently sisters. Beyond that, 323's closest affinity is with the members of Family 1739 and with the Byzantine text.
323 stands closest to 1739 in the Catholic Epistles, particularly in 2 Peter-Jude. In those books it might almost be a copy of 1739 with some corruptions. In James and 1 Peter it still has affinities with family 1739, but the ties are weaker and the Byzantine text more prominent.
The situation is similar in Acts. 323 appears to belong with family 1739, but the Byzantine element is very strong. (So strong that Geer tried to classify it as a Byzantine member of family 1739!) For details on Geer's analysis, see the entry on 1739.
In Paul, 323 is almost entirely Byzantine. The few non-Byzantine readings hint at a family 1739 text (perhaps related to 945), but they are so few that no definite conclusions can be reached.
Von Soden lists 323 as Ib2. Aland and Aland list it as Category II in the Catholics and Category III elsewhere. Richards lists 323 as a member of Group A3 (Family 1739). Amphoux also associated it with 1739.
Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: a157. Tischendorf: 29a; 35p
Aland & Aland (1 page)
Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 for the Acts and Catholic Epistles.
Cited in NA27 for the Acts and Catholic Epistles.
Cited in UBS4 for the Catholic Epistles.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover, but very rather sketchily (especially in Paul).
Thomas C. Geer, Jr., Family 1739 in Acts (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series, 1994). Consists mostly of tables comparing manuscripts 206, 322, 323, 429, 453, 522, 630, 945, 1704, 1739, 1891, 2200. The analysis is flawed, but the results are generally valid.
Saint Petersburg. Catalog number: Public Library Gr. 101.
330 originally contained the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse. It is now slightly damaged. 330 is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated paleographically to the twelfth century.
For the most part, 330 is a quite ordinary Byzantine manuscript. In the Gospels, for instance, Von Soden listed it as Kx and Wisse specifies it as Group 16 (a group close to Kx). Colwell describes 330 as part of Family 574 (=330 574 [Mix/KxCluster 585 according to Wisse] and 1815+2127 [P473 according to Wisse]) in the Gospels. The Alands classify it as Category V (Byzantine). Although there is obviously some doubt about the exact Byzantine group to which 330 belongs, there is no question but that it is Byzantine.
The same is true in the Acts and Catholic Epistles, where the Alands again list 330 as Cateogry V. In the Johnannine Epistles, Richards lists 330 as Byzantine, assigning it specifically to Group B1 (which also contains 319, 479, 483, 635, 1829, and 1891). The Alands designate 330 as Category V in the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles.
The situation is entirely different in Paul. Here the Alands upgrade the manuscript to Category III. But the situation is, perhaps, even more interesting than that.
330 has a unique type of text shared by only three other known manuscripts: 451, which outside of Hebrews is almost close enough to 330 to be a sister; 2400 (according to Gary S. Dykes); and 2492, which seems to have a slightly more Alexandrian-influenced version of the same text. The text of family 330, as we have it, is largely Byzantine, but the remaining readings do not belong purely to either the Alexandrian or "Western" texts. The following list shows some of the unique or nearly unique readings of 330:
Von Soden lists 330 as Ia3 in the Acts and Epistles. This is interesting, since Ia3 also contains 462 and 436, which Davies links to 330. Even Davies, however, admits that the strength of the link "varies," and 436 and 462 do not belong to Family 330. Von Soden appears to be correct, however, in believing the family to be linked, very loosely, with Family 2127 (often called Family 1319). The link probably comes via the Euthalian recension; 330 has the Euthalian apparatus.
There are also hints, although only very slight ones (due to 1506's fragmentary nature), that Family 330 should be linked to the text of 1506. Given 1506's extraordinary text, the matter deserves examination.
330 is not the best of the Family 330 texts. It is almost purely Byzantine in Hebrews. However, it is the only member of family 330 to have been published, and deserves fuller study.
The other members of Family 330 are as follows:
Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: d259. Tischendorf: 330e; 132a; 131p. Also cited as 8pe
M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies & Documents 38, 1968) collates 330 for Paul, and discusses its relationship with 436, 462, and especially 2344.
Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS3 for the Acts, Paul, and the Catholic Epistles, but omitted from UBS4.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover for Paul, but this collation is very bad.
E. C. Colwell, The Four Gospels of Karahissar I, History and Text, Chicago, 1936, examines assorted manuscripts in the gospels, placing 330 in Family 547
Milan, Ambrosian Library Barb. B. 56 Sup. Soden's
Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to December 29, 1022.
Classified as Iba
by von Soden, the other members of this group being 477 1279. Wisse lists
it as a core member of Group 1216 (which corresponds to Von Soden's
though Wisse expels many of Soden's family members from the group (and lists
no subgroups), he shows all three of the
manuscripts as part of Group 1216. Colwell also affirmed the existence
The Alands do not place 348 in any Category; this
is fairly typical for manuscripts with a largely but not purely Byzantine text.
Scrivener notes that it is in two columns, with Old Testament citations marked
with an asterisk (a somewhat unusual notation). It has full lectionary and
Sample plate in Edward Maunde Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography (plate 62).
Milan, Ambrosian Library F. 61 Sup. Soden's e413. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to 1322. Classified as Ifa by von Soden, i.e. as a member of Family 1424 (the other members of this group are 517 954 1188(part) 1424 1675). Wisse does not quite agree; rather than placing 349 in Cluster 1675 (the approximate equivalent of Family 1424), he places 349 in M349, pairing it with 2388. (The M groups are roughly equivalent to von Soden's Ifr). The Alands do not place 349 in any Category; this is fairly typical for manuscripts of this type. Physically, 349 has relatively little equipment: Ammonian sections but no Eusebian apparatus; lectionary tables but no indications in the text. It was taken from Corfu.
Florence. Catalog number: Laurentiana library. VI.36.
365 originally contained the entire New Testament except the Apocalypse, plus the Psalms. Rom. 1:18, 7:18-21, 8:3-31 have been lost. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century.
365 first examined by Scholz, then declared "lost" by Burgon when a librarian assured him there was no such manuscript. It was "rediscovered" by Gregory.
365 is primarily Byzantine in the Gospels, Acts, and Catholics. In Paul it is significantly different. Although it still has more Byzantine readings than anything else, there are a number of Alexandrian readings as well. The vast majority of these readings are shared with 2127 and other texts of what Bover, following the lead of von Soden, calls "family 1319" (a subgroup of the Ia3 text, containing 1319, 2127, 256, 263, etc.; also evidently 1573. A better name would probably be Family 2127, as 2127 is probably the best manuscript of the type. There are hints of a connection with the Armenian; 256 is a Greek/Armenian doglot). 365 agrees with 2127 about 85% of the time (90% of the time in non-Byzantine readings), including such noteworthy readings as
Other important agreements with family 2127 (although not with 2127 itself) include:
Von Soden, as noted, considered family 1319 to belong to the I type. However, it has many more Alexandrian than "Western" readings. 365 seems to be a slightly mixed member of the group (it is more Byzantine than, e.g., 2127), perhaps closest to 1573.
Von Soden lists 365 as Ik in the Gospels and K in the Acts and Epistles. Wisse lists it as Pb (1319 and 2127 also belong to Family P). Aland and Aland list 365 as Category III in the Paul and Category V elsewhere.
The following offers a brief summary of information about the various members of Family 2127 (note: Citations are for Paul, although von Soden, Merk, and Bover generally cite the same manuscripts in the Acts and Catholics):
|256||XI/XII||Paris||National Libr. Armen. 9||Ia3||II||Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS4||Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse with lacunae. Greek/Armenian diglot. The Alands list it as Category II in Paul only; V elsewhere.|
|263||XIII||Paris||National Libr. Gr. 61||Ia3||III||Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS4||Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category III in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as K1 in the Gospels; Wisse lists it as Kx. "Probably from Asia Minor" (Scrivener).|
|365||XIII||Florence||Laurentiana Libr. VI.36.||K||III||NA26, NA27, UBS4||Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles with lacunae. Valuable only in Paul.|
|1319||XII||Jerusalem||Taphu 47.||Ia3||III||Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS4||Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category III in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as Ik in the Gospels; Wisse describes it as Pib.|
|1573||XII/XIII||Athos||Vatopediu 939||III||UBS4||Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category III in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as Ir in the Gospels; Wisse describes it as Mix in Luke 1 and Group Lambda in Luke 10 and 20.|
|2127||XII||Palermo||National Libr. Sep. Mus. 4; also Philadelphia, Free Library, Lewis Collection||Ia3||II||Soden, Merk, Bover, UBS3, UBS4||Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. The Alands list it as Category II in Paul only; V elsewhere. Von Soden lists as IB in the Gospels and K in the Catholics; Wisse describes it as P473. The number 1815 was also assigned to this manuscript. Probably the best manuscript of the family, although it seems to be prone to occasional short omissions.|
Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: d367. Tischendorf: 145a; 181p
M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies & Documents 38, 1968) collates 365 for Galatians (only).
Editions which cite:
Cited in NA26 and NA27 for Paul.
Cited in UBS4 for Paul.
Rome, Vatican Library Greek 1161. Soden's e600. Contains the Gospels, breaking off at John 3:1. Dated to the fifteenth century by Scrivener, the sixteenth century by von Soden and Aland. Classified as Ia by von Soden, which would make it "Western" or "Cæsarean." Wisse does not find a relationship to the major manuscripts of either group, but concedes that it has a mixed text, which he describes as "very strange." The Alands do not assign 372 to any Category; this at least seems to confirm that it is not purely Byzantine. Scrivener describes it as "beautifully written," but lists it as having almost no marginal equipment (e.g. no lectionary information or Eusebian apparatus), and what it has is in Latin. One wonders if the Latin did not somehow influence the Greek.
Oxford, Bodleian Library E. D. Clarke 9. Soden's a353; Tischendorf's and Scrivener's 58a, 224p. Contains the Acts and Epistles (Heb. 13:7-end have been lost). Universally dated to the thirteenth century. Classified as Ic2 by von Soden. In Acts, this places 383 with manuscripts such as 614 2147, with 1108 1245 1518 1611 2138 (Ic1) at a greater distance. This corresponds with conventional wisdom that makes 383 a secondary witness to the "Western" text of Acts. (Though it should be noted that it has not clearly been demonstrated that Family 2138, to which 383 evidently belongs, is actually "Western.") In Paul, 383 and its allies appear to be much more Byzantine (this is perhaps confirmed by the Alands, who declined to place 383 in a Category. This often indicates a manuscript largely but not purely Byzantine.) In the Catholics, 383 is again grouped with 614 2147 etc. by Von Soden, but neither Wachtel nor Amphoux lists it as a member of Family 2138. It seems likely that it is again Byzantine in these books. Collated by August Pott in Der abendlädische Text der Apostelgeschichte und die Wir-Wuelle, and has been used by many others such as Clark and Ropes in determining the "Western" text of Acts.
Munich, Bavarian State Library 36, 37. Soden's Nm60, Ni60; Tischendorf/Scrivener 423e+425e. Two volumes, the first containing Matthew (complete) with the catena of Nicetas (this is Tischendorf 423e) and the second John (also complete and with what Scrivener calls a "very full" catena of Nicetas). The first volume contains a colophon dating it to 1566. The scribe is unnamed, but wrote two manuscripts which were in the Tischendorf list (424e, a commentary on Luke, and 432e, a commentary on Mark) which Gregory deleted from the catalog. It is not certain that the manuscript was ever intended to include Mark or Luke; the Matthew volume is marked Tomos A and the John volume is Tomos B. Little is known of the text; Von Soden simply listed it as a Nicetas manuscript, and of course it did not contain Luke, so Wisse could not classify it. The Alands do not place it in any Category, but it is not clear whether this is because of its text or because of the limited sample size.
Vienna. Catalog number: Nat. Bibl. Theol. Gr. 302, folios 1-353.
424 contains the Acts, Epistles, and Revelation (the latter missing 15:6-17:3, 18:10-19:9, 20:8-22:21). It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Dated paleographically to the eleventh century. The original run of the text is not noteworthy for its errors, but the manuscript has been heavily corrected (see below).
The original text of 424 is of the ordinary Byzantine type of the period, and is in no way worthy of note. However, the manuscript has been subjected to a complete revision in the Pauline and Catholic Epistles, constituting many hundreds of alterations (with three hands reportedly involved; see also the entry on correctors). Some noteworthy examples include:
It will be observed that 424** shares all of these readings with 1739. This pattern continues in the uncited readings; apart from trivial corrections, the corrections agree with 1739 over 90% of the time -- and even where they do not agree with 1739, other members of family 1739 (e.g. 6, 1881) can be found which agree with 424**. (The connection of 1739 and 424** has been known almost since the former was discovered, and more recently was reaffirmed by Birdsall.)
Within family 1739, 424** is perhaps closest to 6 (see, e.g., their unique readings caritos for pistews in Rom. 12:3 and euwciais in Jude 12). The two are by no means identical (as the list above shows), but 6 424** seem to form a subfamily within family 1739.
This does not mean that the corrected text of 424 is as important a text as 1739. It remains more Byzantine than anything else. But where 424** presents us with a non-Byzantine reading, it should be treated as very important, especially when supported by some other member of family 1739 such as 6, 1739, 1881, or 0243.
Von Soden lists 424** as H in the Acts and Epistles (with the (pseudo-)Oecumenius commentary on the Praxapostolos); in the Apocalypse he describes it as Io1. Aland and Aland list 424* as Category V and 424** as Category III (in Paul and the Catholics). Richards lists 424* as belonging to group B6 and 424 as corrected as belonging to group M2 in 1 John and MW in 2 and 3 John. (This, of course, ignores the obvious facts that 2 John and 3 John are too short to allow textual classification, the fact that "mixed" is not a text-type, and the fact that we should treat the corrections in 424 as distinct from 424 as corrected.) In the Apocalypse, Schmid placed it in the "b" group of the K type.
Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: O12. Tischendorf: 66a; 67p; 34r
J.N. Birdsall, A Study of MS. 1739 and its Relationship to MSS. 6, 424, 1908, and M (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1959)
Aland & Aland (1 page)
Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS4 for Paul.
Cited by von Soden, Merk, and Bover, but very imperfectly.
Also cited frequently by Souter.
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek 16.7 A0. Soden's a398 (Acts and Epistles), a1471 (Apocalypse); Tischendorf/Scrivener 69a, 74p, 30r. Contains the Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypse complete. The Acts and Epistles were written by a monk named George in the thirteenth (Scrivener) or fourteenth (Aland) century. The Apocalypse was added later in a fourteenth (Scrivener) or fifteenth (Aland) century hand. The manuscript has relatively little in the way of reader aids, but has "many marginal readings." The text is an interesting mix; Von Soden classifies it as Ib1 in the Acts and Epistles (grouping it with 206 522 1758 1831 1891 etc.) and as K in the Apocalypse, but in fact the matter is much more complicated. The Alands correctly assess it as Category III in the Acts and Catholic Epistles and as Category V in Paul and the Apocalypse. In the Acts and Catholic Epistles, 429 has been shown by Geer to belong with Family 1739 (206 322 323 429 522 630 945 1704 1739 1891 2200), being closest to 206 522. Like 206 and 522 -- and also 630 and 2200, with which 429 seems to form a group -- 429 shifts to Family 2138 in the Catholic Epistles (where its classification has been confirmed by both Amphoux and Wachtel). The manuscript (again like 206 522, but unlike 630 2200) loses almost all value in Paul, however; the Alands correctly assess it as Byzantine. In the Apocalypse, 429 falls within the main or "a" Byzantine group headed by 046. See also under 2138 and Family 2138 and 1739 and Family 1739 as well at the extensive discussion under 206.
Munich, Bavarian State Library 437. Soden's Ni11. Contains only a fragment of the Gospel of John (1:1-8:14), with the commentary of Nicetas. Dated to the eleventh century by all authorities. Its text, unfortunately, has never been properly assessed; Von Soden simply lists it as a Nicetas manuscript, and Wisse and the Alands did not profile the text of John.
Stasbourg, Seminary 1. Soden's d268; Tischendorf/Scrivener 4312, 180a, 238p. Contains the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles. Dated to the eleventh century by Scrivener, to the twelfth by von Soden and Aland. In the Gospels, von Soden lists it as Ak and Wisse as 1167 (indicating rough agreement, as six of Von Soden's Ak witnesses are listed by Wisse as part of 1167). The Alands list it as Category V, i.e. Byzantine. In the Acts and Catholic Epistles, the text is more interesting; here the Alands raise it to Category III, and von Soden lists it as Ia1 (which in Acts includes thw "Western" text, but clearly von Soden is actually placing it with the rather amorphous but interesting group of minuscules 36 88 181 307 453 610 915 917 1829 1874 1898). Amphoux, however, mentions it as a member of Family 2138 (though this is perhaps on the basis of its affinities in the Catholic Epistles). This is not supported by Wachtel, who lists it simply as a manuscript with 20-30% non-Byzantine readings -- and indeed, his evidence makes it highly unlikely that it is a member of Family 2138. In Paul, von Soden still reports the manuscript to be Ia1, but the Alands return it to Category V. Scrivener simply says that the manuscript has "many unusual readings," but it is not clear which part of the manuscript he is referring to.
Rome. Catalog number: Vatican Library Gr. 436.
436 contains the Acts and Epistles. It is written on parchment, one column per page.
Usually dated paleographically to the eleventh century; NA27 moves it up to the tenth century.
436 is generally regarded as a mixed Alexandrian manuscript (so, e.g. the Alands place it in Category III). Wachtel lists it in the least Byzantine (40%) category in the Catholic Epistles, pairing it with 1067.
Von Soden classifies 436 as Ia3, but this group in fact consists mostly of mixed Alexandrian witnesses. Thus von Soden's classification implicitly agrees with that of the Alands.
Detailed investigation seems generally to support Wachtel's conclusions in the Catholics. It is one of the better minuscules, and agrees most strongly with A, 33, and the Bohairic Coptic, making it a primary witness to the dominant form of the Alexandrian text. It has very few unique readings.
In Paul the manuscript is somewhat less good; it agrees with the Byzantine text more than anything else. Apart perhaps from 1067, it seems to fall closest to 104. Even this kinship is rather distant. Overall, the ancestry of the text seems to belong with 1962, family 2127, and the other late Alexandrian manuscripts (this agrees generally with von Soden's results).
As far back as the nineteenth century, 436 was linked with 69, and Davies extends this group to include 462 (known to be very closely related to 69), 330, and 2344. The link to 330 appears false; their similarities lie simply in late Alexandrian readings. The tie to 69 and 462 appears stronger; 436 and 462 have high rates of agreement where both are non-Byzantine. However, they are not immediate kin; an examination of Davies's collations shows that they do not share many special readings, and that they have each suffered distinct patterns of Byzantine corruptions (with 462 being much the more Byzantine of the two; it is closer to the Byzantine text than to 436).
Other Symbols Used for this Manuscript
von Soden: a172. Tischendorf: 73a; 80p.
M. Davies, The Text of the Pauline Epistles in MS. 2344 (Studies & Documents 38, 1968) collates 436 for Paul, and discusses its relationship with 330, 462, and especially 2344.
Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS3 for the Acts and Epistles, and in UBS4 for Paul and the Catholics.
Cited in von Soden, Merk, and Bover for the Acts and Epistles.
Cambridge, University Library Nn.ii.36. Soden's e270. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century by all authorities. Classified by von Soden as Io; this amorphous group also contains U X 213 1071 1321(part) 1574 2145. This is not confirmed by Wisse (who dissolves Io, and evidently with good reason); he reports 443 as a memberof M159 (along with 159 and part of 1557). The Alands list 443 as Category V. Scrivener reports that the ordinary kefalaia have been subdivided in this manuscript. It has the Eusebian apparatus, but the lectionary data is partial, coming from another, apparently later hand.
Rome, Vatican Library Urbin. Gr. 3. Soden's a178; Tischendorf/Scrivener 79a, 90p. Contains the Acts and Epistles complete. Universally dated to the eleventh century. Von Soden lists it as a K witness, and this appears to be true in the Acts and Catholic Epistles. Certainly the Alands concur, placing 451 in Category V in those books, with only three non-Byzantine readings (out of 105) in Acts and 8 (out of 98) in the Catholics. Matters change entirely in Paul, and the Alands reflect this by upgrading the manuscript to Category III. Here 451 is a clear and obvious member of family 330; the two agree in fully 436 of 464 test readings, including 75 of 77 readings where both are non-Byzantine. Over a third of their 28 differences are in Hebrews, where 330 is largely Byzantine. (The third member of this family, 2492, is by no means this close to the two.) It is possible that 451 and 330 are sisters, with the common exemplar having some corrections between the time 451 and 330 were copied. Certainly the two have a common ancestor not far back in their ancestry. It is conceivable that 451 is the ancestor of 330, but this seems somewhat unlikely, as the following readings from the apparatus of GNT3 demonstrate:
Rome. Catalog number: Vatican Library Barb. Greek 582.
453 contains the Acts and Catholic Epistles complete, with a commentary (reported by Von Soden to be that of Andreas).
Dated by the Kurzgefasste Liste, following Gregory, to the fourteenth century. Scrivener, however, listed an eleventh century date. (We should note that Scrivener's information was incomplete. Scholz was unable to see the manuscript, and Scrivener's list says that the manuscript "contains but one chapter of the Acts and the Catholic Epistles.")
Von Soden lists 453 as a member of Ia1 in Acts, a diverse group containing, e.g., D 88 181 431 915 917 1829 1874 1898. The last four members of this group, however, are 36 (now renumbered 2818) 307 453 610. All of these manuscripts, according to Von Soden, have the Andreas commentary, and they are certainly closely related. The following shows the percentage agreements of these manuscripts, and certain control manuscripts, in the variants noted in UBS4. Agreements over 90% are highlighted:
(We should note that Von Soden lists several other Andreas manuscripts: K/018, 437, 832, 886, 1895, 2186. K, however, does not contain the Acts -- and is Byzantine in any case. 832 2186 also lack Acts. 437 887 1895 contain Acts, but based on the information compiled by the Alands, they cannot be true members of Family 453; either they are severely mixed or they belong to another text-type.)
The question then becomes, what is the nature of the Family 453 text? The Alands esteem it highly; in Acts, they list 36 as Category II and 307 453 610 1678 as Category III (we should note, however, that there is no reason, based on their numbers, to separate 36 from the other four; all have almost exactly the same ratio of Byzantine readings to UBS readings). But the Alands' classification does not characterize text-types; it simply tells us how non-Byzantine a manuscript is. If we look at the above list, it would appear that the members of Family 36 fall closer to 1739 than to any of the other primary manuscripts (e.g. A B D L P 614). And indeed, we find Thomas C. Geer, Jr., who studied Family 1739 in Acts, labelling 453 as a weak member: it is "somewhat significantly related to [the leading manuscripts of Family 1739]" -- but he adds that it "does not have a strong enough relationship to be considered a leading member of the family... it is already clear that it is a 'cousin' at best" (Family 1739 in Acts, p. 100). Geer did not study the other members of Family 453, but there is every reason to believe that he would have regarded the other members similarly. The evidence listed in the table above is also inconclusive; while 453 and its relatives agree with 1739 on the order of 75% of the time in the sample (which those who follow the Colwell Definition would regard as close enough to belong to a text-type), it should be noted that the above sample is biased; it contains many readings where D opposes the entire Greek tradition -- readings which should not be counted under the Colwell definition. If these are omitted, the agreement between 1739 and Family 453 falls well below the 70% threshhold (on the order of 65%). It's also noteworthy that 453 agrees more with 1739's more Byzantine relatives (945 1891) than with 1739 itself. Finally, if we examine the number of non-Byzantine agreements in the above sample, 453 does not stand all that close to 1739; it has 37 such agreements with 1739, but 37 also with P74 and B (even though P74 is not complete), 36 with -- and, by comparison, 53 non-Byzantine agreements with 36, 57 with 307, 50 with 610, and 53 with 1678. Thus it would seem likely that 453 and Family 453, while they may share common influences with Family 1739, are not truly members of the same text-type (though a fuller study would be needed to make this certain; Geer's work, even if one ignores several methodological problems, did not examine Family 453 as a whole, and the data for Acts given above is based on too small a sample).
In the Catholic Epistles, the situation changes somewhat. The Alands' data implies that 453 and its relatives are much more Byzantine in the Catholic Epistles than in Acts. Wachtel elaborates this analysis of the data considerably. 453 and its relatives are listed among the manuscripts with a text 30-40% non-Byzantine. Within this class (not really a text-type), we find 453 heading a group of eight manuscripts: 36, 94, 307, 453, 918, 920, 1678, 2197. 36, 307, and 1678 we of course recognize as members of Family 453 in Acts. 94 is reported by Von Soden to have Oecumenius's commentary on the Acts and Epistles, but has Andreas on the Apocalypse. 918 is listed as another Oecumenius manuscript by Von Soden (though the Kurzgefasste Liste does not show it as having a commentary); it does not contain Acts. 920 is not a commentary manuscript, but Von Soden lists it as another Ia manuscript (although von Soden assigns it to the Ia3 group rather than Ia1). 2197 contains only Paul and Catholic Epistles, and Von Soden does not seem to have classified it outside Paul (since he lists it simply as a Theophylact/Paul manuscript).
von Soden: Apr40
Editions which cite:
Cited in UBS4 for Acts.
Thomas C. Geer, Jr., Family 1739 in Acts, Scholars Press, 1994, discusses 453 in the context of Family 1739.
London, Lambeth Palace 1177. Soden's e1386; Scrivener's 511e/cscr. Contains the Gospels with extensive lacunae (lacking Matt. 4:1-7:6, 20:21-21:12, Luke 4:29-5:1, 16:24-17:13, 20:19-41, John 6:51-8:2, 12:20-40, 14:27-15:13, 17:6-18:2, 18:37-19:14. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by the Liste and von Soden; Scrivener says eleventh or twelfth. Classified by von Soden as I', that is, among the miscellaneous "Western"/Byzantine mixed manuscripts. Wisse's data would seem to at least allow the possibility that it is mixed with something not quite Byzantine; he lists it as "Mix/Kmix/Mix; pair with 1009." This is given some additional support by the Alands, who do not assign 472 to any Category. Scrivener notes that it is "for valuable readings by far the most important at Lambeth [presumably of the gospel minuscules], shamefully ill written, torn and much mutilated." It has rather incomplete equipment: Ammonian sections but no Eusebian data; lectionary markings and Synaxarion but no Menologion; partial kefalaia.
London, Lambeth Palace 1178. Soden's e1390; Scrivener's 512e/dscr. Contains the Gospels, now complete (the first few leaves, containing introductory matter and Matt. 1:1-8, were lost for a time). Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by the Liste and von Soden; Scrivener offers the curious dating "xi or xiv." Classified by von Soden as Ikc, that is, as part of the third group of Family P witnesses, along with such manuscripts as 229 280 482 1354. Wisse's results generally confirm this; 473 is listed as a member of P473 -- although it should be noted that none of von Soden's Ikc witnesses are part of P473. The Alands classify 473 as Category V. Physically, Scrivener describes the manuscript as "A noble-looking copy" and written "in a fine hand, splendidly illuminated, and with much curious matter in the subscriptions." It has the usual Eusebian apparatus and lectionary equipment.
London, British Museum, Arundel 524. Soden's e1126; Scrivener's 566e/hscr. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the eleventh century by all authorities. Classified by von Soden as K1. Wisse almost agrees, listing the manuscript as Kx (to Wisse, K1 is part of Kx. As one would expect, the Alands classify 476 as Category V. Physically, 476 is rather small (just more than 17x13 cm), but otherwise un-noteworthy; it has the usual Eusebian and lectionary apparatus.
Cambridge, Trinity College B.X.17. Soden's e350; Scrivener's 508e/iscr. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by all recent authorities (Bentley, who gave it to Trinity College -- it was originally from Athos -- dated it XI). Classified by von Soden as Iba; other members of this group include 348 and 1279; and the "b" group of this type contains 16 1216 1579 1588(part). Wisse gives a similar classification, placing 477 in Group 1216 (one of two groups Wisse associated with Ib, Group 16 being the other). Wisse calls Group 1216 clearly distinct from Kx, but the Alands classify 477 as Category V. It has only limited marginalia: Ammonian Sections but no Eusebian apparatus, and while the lectionary information is present, there is no menologion. Even the synaxarion may be an afterthought, as it (and the hypotheses to Matthew) are on paper while the rest of the manuscript is parchment.
British Museum Burney 20. Soden's e329; Scrivener's 570e/pscr. Contains the Gospels complete. Dated by its colophon to 1285 -- although, in an interesting forgery, this has been altered to read 985 (the two have the same indiction). Classified by von Soden as Ikc, that is, as part of the third group of Family P witnesses, along with such manuscripts as 229 280 473 1354. Wisse's results partly confirm this; he lists 482 as Kx/Pa/Pa. Scrivener, who collated the manuscript, comments that it is "quite equal in value to Cod. cscr [472, which shows in Wisse's list as primarily mixed]... and often agrees closely with wscr [489, which is listed by Wisse as pure Pa]." The Alands, however, assign 482 to Category V. As members of Family P more often than not are uncategorized in their lists, they would seem to supply some faint support for the Wisse's contention that 482 has some Kx. The manuscript was written by a monk named Theophilus, and Scrivener reports that it has "many corrections" from a later hand, which also added the lectionary lists (though the lectionary markings in the text, like the Eusebian apparatus, are from the first hand).
London, British Museum Burney 23. Soden's e1386; Scrivener's 572e/sscr. Contains the Gospels with major lacunae (lacking Luke 5:22-9:32, 11:31-12:25, 27:24-28:4, John 8:14-end). Dated paleographically to the thirteenth century by von Soden and Aland; Scrivener suggests the twelfth. Classified by von Soden as I', i.e. in the miscellaneous vaguely "Western" witnesses. Wisse classifies it as Kx, and this is supported by the Alands, who list it as Category V. Von Soden may have been confused by the way it was written; Scrivener describes the manuscript as "boldly but carelessly written" -- though he also commens "with many later changes and weighty readings." It has full lectionary equipment and the Ammonian Sections, but not the Eusebian apparatus.
London, British Museum Add. 16183. Soden's e243; Scrivener's 581e. Contains the Gospels complete, though some of the introductory material has been lost. Dated paleographically to the twelfth century. Classified by von Soden as I', i.e. in the miscellaneous vaguely "Western" witnesses. Wisse classifies it as Kmix, while the Alands do not list it as belonging to any Category. All of these descriptions, diverse as they sound, imply much the same thing: A manuscript clearly Byzantine, but with some readings not associated with Kx. Whether these readings have any real value must await a more detailed study. It has a full apparatus (Eusebian materials, lectionary equipment, etc.), though the Eusebian tables were not finished. The hand is described by Scrivener as "minute." The manuscript is thought to have been taken from Sinai.